Project description:Microbial colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in establishing health and homeostasis. However, the time-dependent and related functional signatures of microbial and human proteins during early colonization of the gut have yet to be determined. Thus, we employed shotgun proteomics via nano-2D-LC-MS/MS to simultaneously monitor microbial and human proteins in fecal samples from a healthy preterm infant during early development. ). All MS/MS spectra were searched against a predicted protein database containing 25 microbial species along with the Human RefSeq2011 genome using the SEQUEST algorithm (Eng et al, 1994), and filtered with DTASelect version 1.9 (Tabb et al, 2002) at the peptide level with standard filters [SEQUEST Xcorrs of at least 1.8 (+1), 2.5 (+2) 3.5 (+3)] organizing identified peptides to their corresponding protein sequences. This study provides the first elucidation of coordinated human and microbial proteins in the infant gut during early development.
Project description:The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional complexity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and carbon metabolism strategies from catabolic pathways of milk and mucin-derived monosaccharides feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food sugars fuelling butyrate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life.
Project description:On going efforts are directed at understanding the mutualism between the gut microbiota and the host in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants. Due to the lack of tissue biopsies, no investigators have performed a global transcriptional (gene expression) analysis of the developing human intestine in healthy infants. As a result, the crosstalk between the microbiome and the host transcriptome in the developing mucosal-commensal environment has not been determined. In this study, we examined the host intestinal mRNA gene expression and microbial DNA profiles in full term 3 month-old infants exclusively formula fed (FF) (n=6) or breast fed (BF) (n=6) from birth to 3 months. Host mRNA microarray measurements were performed using isolated intact sloughed epithelial cells in stool samples collected at 3 months. Microbial composition from the same stool samples was assessed by metagenomic pyrosequencing. Both the host mRNA expression and bacterial microbiome phylogenetic profiles provided strong feature sets that clearly classified the two groups of babies (FF and BF). To determine the relationship between host epithelial cell gene expression and the bacterial colony profiles, the host transcriptome and functionally profiled microbiome data were analyzed in a multivariate manner. From a functional perspective, analysis of the gut microbiota's metagenome revealed that characteristics associated with virulence differed between the FF and BF babies. Using canonical correlation analysis, evidence of multivariate structure relating eleven host immunity / mucosal defense-related genes and microbiome virulence characteristics was observed. These results, for the first time, provide insight into the integrated responses of the host and microbiome to dietary substrates in the early neonatal period. Our data suggest that systems biology and computational modeling approaches that integrate “-omic” information from the host and the microbiome can identify important mechanistic pathways of intestinal development affecting the gut microbiome in the first few months of life. KEYWORDS: infant, breast-feeding, infant formula, exfoliated cells, transcriptome, metagenome, multivariate analysis, canonical correlation analysis 12 samples, 2 groups
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ~50% of humans and produce H2S, a signaling molecule with numerous host effects. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing (INSeq), RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy USA adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial 9-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for utilizing ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. While genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage’s substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources, and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients, and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those that harbor it. Overall design: mRNA profiles of fecal contents from gnotobiotic mice colonized with defined consortia of human gut associated microbes
Project description:Gut microbiome research is rapidly moving towards the functional characterization of the microbiota by means of shotgun meta-omics. Here, we selected a cohort of healthy subjects from an indigenous and monitored Sardinian population to analyze their gut microbiota using both shotgun metagenomics and shotgun metaproteomics. We found a considerable divergence between genetic potential and functional activity of the human healthy gut microbiota, in spite of a quite comparable taxonomic structure revealed by the two approaches. Investigation of inter-individual variability of taxonomic features revealed Bacteroides and Akkermansia as remarkably conserved and variable in abundance within the population, respectively. Firmicutes-driven butyrogenesis (mainly due to Faecalibacterium spp.) was shown to be the functional activity with the higher expression rate and the lower inter-individual variability in the study cohort, highlighting the key importance of the biosynthesis of this microbial by-product for the gut homeostasis. The taxon-specific contribution to functional activities and metabolic tasks was also examined, giving insights into the peculiar role of several gut microbiota members in carbohydrate metabolism (including polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis and short-chain fatty acid production). In conclusion, our results provide useful indications regarding the main functions actively exerted by the gut microbiota members of a healthy human cohort, and support metaproteomics as a valuable approach to investigate the functional role of the gut microbiota in health and disease.
Project description:Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the gut-brain axis, characterized by altered gut function and frequent psychiatric co-morbidity. Although altered intestinal microbiome profiles have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role of the microbiota, we colonized germ-free mice with fecal microbiota from healthy controls or IBS patients with accompanying anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior. Mouse microbiota profiles clustered according to their human donors. Despite having taxonomically similar composition as controls, mice with IBS microbiota had distinct serum metabolomic profiles related to neuro- and immunomodulation. Mice with IBS, but not control microbiota, exhibited faster gastrointestinal transit, intestinal barrier dysfunction, innate immune activation and anxiety-like behavior. These results support the notion that the microbiota contributes to both intestinal and behavioral manifestations of IBS and rationalize the use of microbiota-directed therapies in ameliorating IBS. Overall design: We extracted total RNA of colonic tissues extracted from germ-free NIH swiss mice (10-12 weeks) colonized with healthy human gut microbiota (10 mice per fecal sample, 5 fecal samples, total=50 mice), and mice colonized with human microbiota of IBS patients (10 mice per sample, 6 fecal samples, total =60 mice). We then pooled together all the RNA samples of all the mice colonized with the same microbiota, to form a representative sample for the colonization with that specific human fecal sample. We finally ran 11 samples in total through the NanoString nCounter® Gene Expression CodeSet for mouse inflammation genes.