Project description:The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) is a semi-endoparasitic nematode that is a pathogen of numerous major crops such as cotton and soybean. Here, the authors present transcriptome assemblies of the egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), J3, vermiform adult, and sedentary female life stages of this important plant pathogen.The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) is a semi-endoparasitic nematode that is a pathogen of numerous major crops such as cotton and soybean. Here, the authors present transcriptome assemblies of the egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), J3, vermiform adult, and sedentary female life stages of this important plant pathogen.
Project description:The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species that is pathogenic on many row crops, fruits, and vegetables. Here, the authors present a draft genome assembly of R. reniformis using small- and large-insert libraries sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx and MiSeq platforms.The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species that is pathogenic on many row crops, fruits, and vegetables. Here, the authors present a draft genome assembly of R. reniformis using small- and large-insert libraries sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx and MiSeq platforms.
Project description:A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil.
Project description:Rotylenchulus reniformis is the predominant parasitic nematode of cotton in the Mid South area of the United States. Although variable levels of infection and morphological differences have been reported for this nematode, genetic variability has been more elusive. We developed microsatellite-enriched libraries for R. reniformis, produced 1152 clones, assembled 694 contigs, detected 783 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and designed 192 SSR-markers. The markers were tested on six R. reniformis cultures from four states, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Georgia, in the USA. Based on performance we selected 156 SSR markers for R. reniformis from which 88 were polymorphic across the six reniform nematode populations, showing as the most frequent motif the dinucleotide AG. The polymorphic information content of the markers ranged from 0.00 to 0.82, and the percentage of multiallelic loci of the isolates was between 40.9 and 45.1%. An interesting finding in this study was the genetic variability detected among the three Mississippi isolates, for which 22 SSR markers were polymorphic. We also tested the level of infection of these isolates on six cotton genotypes, where significant differences were found between the Texas and Georgia isolates. Coincidentally, 62 polymorphic markers were able to distinguish these two populations. Further studies will be necessary to establish possible connections, if any, between markers and level of pathogenicity of the nematode. The SSR markers developed here will be useful in the assessment of the genetic diversity of this nematode, could assist in management practices for control of reniform nematode, be used in breeding programs for crop resistance, and help in detecting the origin and spread of this nematode in the United States.
Project description:Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active 'feeding sites'. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs distinguish them from all other CEPs, regardless of origin. Together with the distant phylogenetic relationship of R. reniformis to the only other CEP-encoding nematode genus identified to date (Meloidogyne), this suggests that CEPs probably evolved de novo in R. reniformis. We have characterized the first member of this large gene family (RrCEP1), demonstrating its significant up-regulation during the plant-nematode interaction and expression in the effector-producing pharyngeal gland cell. All internal CEP domains of multi-domain RrCEPs are followed by di-basic residues, suggesting a mechanism for cleavage. A synthetic peptide corresponding to RrCEP1 domain 1 is biologically active and capable of up-regulating plant nitrate transporter (AtNRT2.1) expression, whilst simultaneously reducing primary root elongation. When a non-CEP-containing, syncytia-forming PPN species (Heterodera schachtii) infects Arabidopsis in a CEP-rich environment, a smaller feeding site is produced. We hypothesize that CEPs of R. reniformis represent a two-fold adaptation to sustained biotrophy in this species: (i) increasing host nitrate uptake, whilst (ii) limiting the size of the syncytial feeding site produced.
Project description:?-1,4-endoglucanses, a.k.a. cellulases, are parasitism genes that facilitate root penetration and migration by plant-parasitic nematodes. Rotylenchulus reniformis is a sedentary semi-endoparasite for which little molecular data has been collected. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a predicted glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase from R. reniformis that we have named Rr-eng-1. The Rr-eng-1 cDNA was 1,341 bp long and was comprised of a 19 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1,245 bp open reading frame (ORF), and an 80 bp 3'-UTR. The Rr-eng-1 genomic sequence was 2,325 bp. Alignment of the cDNA and genomic sequences revealed seven introns and eight exons for Rr-eng-1. BLASTN analysis showed the Rr-eng-1 cDNA was most homologous to the Hg-eng-6 mRNA from Heterodera glycines. Southern blot analysis indicated that at least three Rr-eng-1-like sequences were present in the R. reniformis genome. Translation of the Rr-eng-1 ORF yielded a 414 amino acid peptide (Rr-ENG-1) having an N-terminal signal sequence for secretion. No cellulose binding module (CBM) was detected in Rr-ENG-1; however, a putative CBM linker sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain was present. Rr-ENG-1 was most homologous to Hg-ENG-6 but also shared a number of intron splice positions with Mi-ENG-2. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Rr-eng-1 was highly expressed in the J2 and adult vermiform life-stages with a sharp decline in expression detected in sedentary females.
Project description:The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species with a host range that encompasses more than 77 plant families. Nematode effector proteins containing plant-ligand motifs similar to CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides have been identified in the Heterodera, Globodera, and Meloidogyne genera of sedentary endoparasites. Here, we describe the isolation, sequence analysis, and spatiotemporal expression of three R. reniformis genes encoding putative CLE motifs named Rr-cle-1, Rr-cle-2, and Rr-cle-3. The Rr-cle cDNAs showed >98% identity with each other and the predicted peptides were identical with the exception of a short stretch of residues at the carboxy(C)-terminus of the variable domain (VD). Each RrCLE peptide possessed an amino-terminal signal peptide for secretion and a single C-terminal CLE motif that was most similar to Heterodera CLE motifs. Aligning the Rr-cle cDNAs with their corresponding genomic sequences showed three exons with an intron separating the signal peptide from the VD and a second intron separating the VD from the CLE motif. An alignment of the RrCLE1 peptide with Heterodera glycines and Heterodera schachtii CLE proteins revealed a high level of homology within the VD region associated with regulating in planta trafficking of the processed CLE peptide. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed similar expression profiles for each Rr-cle transcript across the R. reniformis life-cycle with the greatest transcript abundance being in sedentary parasitic female nematodes. In situ hybridization showed specific Rr-cle expression within the dorsal esophageal gland cell of sedentary parasitic females.