Project description:The practice of mitigating cannibalism in aquaculture is an important focus for hatcheries seeking to maximize yield and has been maintained in hatcheries focusing on wild stock restoration. We hypothesize, however, that a cannibal feeding strategy may confer performance advantages over a non-cannibal feeding strategy and that perhaps cannibal size grading may not be optimal for hatcheries focusing on conservation goals. This study examined metabolic performance differences between cannibal and non-cannibal burbot, Lota lota maculosa, at the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Twin Rivers Hatchery in Moyie Springs, ID, USA. After habitat alteration led to functional extinction of burbot in the region, the Twin Rivers Hatchery has played a leading role in the reestablishment of burbot in the Kootenai River, ID, and British Columbia. We examined morphometric data (weight, length and condition factor), whole animal resting metabolic rate and the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase to describe the baseline metabolic performance of cannibal and non-cannibal burbot. Taken together, our results demonstrated significant differences in the metabolic strategies of cannibal vs. non-cannibal burbot, where cannibals relied more heavily on carbohydrate metabolism and non-cannibals relied more heavily on glycolytic and lipid metabolism. This study demonstrates the need to reevaluate the traditional practice of removing cannibal fish in conservation hatcheries, as it may not be the ideal strategy of raising the most robust individuals for release. When natural habitat conditions cannot be restored due to permanent habitat alteration, prioritizing release of higher performing individuals could help achieve conservation goals.
Project description:In fish with external fertilization, two main start-up mechanisms of the path that blocks or activates the spermatozoan motility apparatus are known. The main factor managing the path is osmolality or potassium ion. In burbot from the European and North American population, contradictory findings regarding the factors influencing the onset of spermatozoa motility were reported. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of potassium and osmolality on the spermatozoa activation of European burbot, Lota lota (Actinopterygii, Gadiformes, Lotidae). Moreover, the influence of pH, as well as sodium ion concentrations on spermatozoa motility was investigated. Seven parameters characterising motility were traced by means of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA).The spermatozoa of European burbot are K+ ion-sensitive. A 6-mM KCl solution significantly decreased motility, and above 12-mM (50 mOsm kg-1) totally ceased spermatozoa movement. Sucrose and Na+ solutions inhibited spermatozoa movement only at concentrations > 450-480 mOsm kg-1. Greater differences in the percentage of motile sperm between individuals were noted in solutions containing high concentrations of chemicals triggering sperm motility. The optimum osmolality for spermatozoa motility is in the range of 100-200 mOsm kg-1. The burbot spermatozoa were motile over a wide range of pH values with the best activation at pH 9.It was demonstrated that the spermatozoa of European burbot are inhibited by K+ ions similarly as in North American burbot. Other electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions inhibit spermatozoa movement only if their osmolality is greater than that of the physiological osmolality of seminal plasma. The data provided on basic knowledge of burbot spermatozoa allow to ensure appropriate conditions during artificial reproduction and scientific research.
Project description:Deltamethrin is an important pesticide widely used against ectoparasites. Deltamethrin contamination has resulted in a threat to the healthy breeding of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we investigated transcriptional responses in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis exposed to deltamethrin. We obtained 99,087,448, 89,086,478, and 100,117,958 raw sequence reads from control 1, control 2, and control 3 groups, and 92,094,972, 92,883,894, and 92,500,828 raw sequence reads from test 1, test 2, and test 3 groups, respectively. After filtering and quality checking of the raw sequence reads, our analysis yielded 79,228,354, 72,336,470, 81,859,826, 77,649,400, 77,194,276, and 75,697,016 clean reads with a mean length of 150 bp from the control and test groups. After deltamethrin treatment, a total of 160 and 167 genes were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Gene ontology terms "biological process," "cellular component," and "molecular function" were enriched with respect to cell killing, cellular process, other organism part, cell part, binding, and catalytic. Pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes showed that the metabolic pathways were significantly enriched. We found that the CYP450 enzyme system, carboxylesterase, glutathione-S-transferase, and material (including carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and other substances) metabolism played important roles in the metabolism of deltamethrin in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis. This study revealed differentially expressed genes related to insecticide metabolism and detoxification in E. sinensis for the first time and will help in understanding the toxicity and molecular metabolic mechanisms of deltamethrin in E. sinensis.
Project description:The CXCR5 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5) is chemokine transmembrane receptor, acting via its ligand CXCL13 and plays a crucial role in controlling the trafficking of inflammatory cells into and from the sub-retinal space, which contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD. We have previously described the genetic ablation of CXCR5 deficiency causes RPE/choroid abnormalities and retinal degeneration (RD) in aged mice. Here we report the transcriptome data (RNA-Seq) of 24 months old CXCR5 knockout (KO) and age-matched C57BL/6 controls (WT). RNA sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq 2500, providing up to 300 GB of sequence information per flow cell. The quality of RNA-seq libraries, RNA intensity were validated by Agilent Technologies Bioanalyzer-2100. The raw datasets contains on average 292,004,59 reads (after trimming 284,862,43 reads) in retina and 272,527,90 reads (after trimming 266,173,11 reads) in choroid samples. The mapped reads showed that a total of 1586 genes in retina and 1462 genes in choroid are differentially expressed in this experiment. The raw datasets were deposited into NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database and can be accessed via accession number PRJNA588421.
Project description:Monotropa hypopitys (pinesap) is a non-photosynthetic obligately mycoheterotrophic plant of the family Ericaceae. It obtains the carbon and other nutrients from the roots of surrounding autotrophic trees through the associated mycorrhizal fungi. In order to understand the evolutionary changes in the plant genome associated with transition to a heterotrophic lifestyle, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of M. hypopitys using next-generation sequencing. We obtained the RNA-Seq data from flowers, flower bracts and roots with haustoria using Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRP069226. A total of 10.3 GB raw sequence data were obtained, corresponding to 103,357,809 raw reads. A total of 103,025,683 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 98,349 unigens with an N50 of 1342 bp. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 43,505 putative proteins. 38,416 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database using BLASTX. The obtained transcriptomic data will be useful for further studies of the evolution of plant genomes upon transition to a non-photosynthetic lifestyle and the loss of photosynthesis-related functions.