Project description:We previously reported that CCR4+CCR6+Th17 cells are permissive to HIV, while CXCR3+CCR6- Th1 cells are relatively resistant. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional profiling in CXCR3+CCR6-Th1, CCR4+CCR6-Th2, CCR4+CCR6+Th17, and CXCR3+CCR6+Th1Th17 upon TCR triggering. Transcriptional differences between Th17 and Th1 were the most remarkable. HIV-DNA integration was highly efficient in Th17 versus Th1 upon exposure to both wild-type and VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV, indicative that post-entry mechanisms contribute to HIV permissiveness. 4 cell populations from up to 5 donors for a total of 19 samples.
Project description:In an effort to identify mechanisms governing HIV-1 permissiveness in gut-homing Th17 cells, we analyzed the transcriptome of CCR6+ versus CCR6- T-cells exposed to the gut-homing inducer retinoic acid (RA) and performed functional validations in colon biopsies of HIV-infected individuals receiving ART (HIV+ART). Together, our results identify mTOR as a druggable key regulator of HIV permissiveness in gut-homing CCR6+ T-cells. Overall design: Total cellular RNA was extracted from Th17-polarized CD4+ T-cells from 6 donors in two experimental conditions (ATRA-stimulated and unstimulated).
Project description:Th17 cells act as the first line of defense against pathogens at mucosal surfaces. Their paucity during HIV infection causes disease progression. Here, we reveal the existence of two new CCR6+CD161+ subsets, CCR4-CXCR3- (DN; double negative) and CCR4+CXCR3+ (DP; double positive), expressing typical Th17 transcripts (e.g., RORγt, RORα, PTPN13, ARNTL), C. albicans specificity, and exhibiting Th17-lineage commitment versus flexibility. 4 cell populations from up to 6 donors for a total of 20 samples.
Project description:We next sought to identify the transcriptional program that differentiates IL-9+Th2 cells from “conventional” Th2 cells. To this end, we selected representative Th1, Th17, Th2, and IL-9+Th2 clones (Figure 5A) and determined their transcriptome in the resting state and at different time points after activation using RNAseq. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by Ficoll-Plaque Plus (GE Healthcare, UK) density gradient centrifugation. Human CD4+ T cells were isolated from PBMC by EasySep positive selection kit (Stemcell Technologies) according to manufacturer’s instruction. Positively selected CD4+ T cells were washed with PBS and stained for subsequent Th cell subset sorting. Memory Th cell subsets were sorted to over 90% purity according to their expression of chemokine receptors from CD45RA-CD25-CD8-CD3+ cells: Th1(CXCR3+CCR8-CCR6-CCR4-), Th2 (CXCR3-CCR8-CCR6-CCR4+), Th17 (CXCR3-CCR8-CCR6+CCR4+), Th9 (CXCR3-CCR8+CCR6-CCR4+). Single cell Th subset clones were directly sorted into 96well plate according to their expression of chemokine receptors (see above). Single cell clones were expanded and maintained by periodic restimulation with PHA (phytohaemaglutinine, 1 µg/ml, Sigma-Chemicals) and irradiated allogenic feeder cells (5x104/well) in culture medium. T cells were polyclonally activated using beads coated with antibodies against CD3, CD2, and CD28 (T cell/bead = 2:1, human T cell activation/expansion Kit, Miltenyi). Cell cultures were sampled before activation (time 0h) and 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 hours after activation.
Project description:Human IL-10– and IL-10+ TH17 clones maintained their pro- or anti-inflammatory characteristics after long-term culture. There were similarities between human IL-10– vs. IL-10+ TH17 clones and mouse pathogenic vs. non-pathogenic TH17 cells. Overall design: From healthy donors (n=5), CD4+ T cells clones were established from CCR6+CCR4+CXCR3– memory CD4+ T cells that were enriched for TH17 cells 14, 18 and screened for clones producing IL-17 with or without co-secretion of IL-10.
Project description:We wish to show that Th2A cells have a distinct gene expression profile compared to Th2 cells in allergic subjects Overall design: We sorted conventional Th1 cells (CXCR3+ CCR4- CCR6-), conventional Th17 cells (CCR6+), Th2A cells (CRTH2+ CD161+ CD49d+ CD27- CD45RB-) and conventional Th2+ cells (CRTH2+ CD161-) from the PBMC of 3 subject pools. Each pool consisted of cells from 2-3 allergic donors. Sorted TH subsets were stimulated for 6 hours with anti-CD3/CD28 beads (Life Technologies, STIM samples) or left unstimulated (CTRL samples) prior to extraction of RNA (RNeasy Mini kit; Qiagen).
Project description:We previously demonstrated that Th1Th17 cells are highly permissive to HIV-1, whereas Th1 cells are relatively resistant. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Superior HIV replication in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells was regulated by entry and post-entry mechanisms. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression signatures caracterizing Th1 cells from Th1Th17. Primary human Th1 (CXCR3+CCR6- phenotype) and Th1Th17 (CXCR3+CCR6- phenotype) CD4+ T-cells were isolated by flow cytometry from HIV-uninfected, healthy donors. Cells were stimulated via CD3/CD28 for 3 days. The RNA was extracted and hybridized on the GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array (Affymetrix).
Project description:Mechanisms by which regulatory T (Treg) cells fail to control inflammation in asthma remain poorly understood. We show that a severe asthma-associated polymorphism in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα-R576) biases induced Treg (iTreg) cells towards a T helper 17 (TH17) cell fate. This skewing reflects the recruitment by IL-4Rα-R576 of the adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), which drives IL-17 expression by an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-, IL-6- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. We showed that the IL-4Rα-R576 mutation elicits TH17 airway responses in vivo, in a house dust mite (HDM)- or ovalbumin (OVA)-driven model of airway inflammation in the mice carry the IL-4Rα-R576 mutation (Il4raR576 mice). Treg cell-specific deletion of genes encoding IL-6Rα or the master TH17 cell regulator Retinoid-related Orphan Receptor γt (RORγt), but not IL-4 and IL-13, protected mice against exacerbated airway inflammation induced by IL-4Rα--576. Analysis of lung tissue Treg cells revealed that the expression of IL-17 and the TH17 cell-associated chemokine receptor CCR6 was largely overlapping and highly enriched in Treg and conventional T (Tconv) cells of allergen-treated Il4raR576 mice. To further characterize the subset of IL-17 producing Foxp3+ Treg in the lung of OVA-treated mice we utilized CCR6 as a marker of Treg cells committed towards the TH17 cell lineage to examine their functional, epigenetic and transcriptional profiles. CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells isolated from OVA-sensitized and challenged Il4raR576 mice, by FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting) exhibited decreased methylation of the Foxp3 CNS2 locus comparing to CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells from same animals, indicative of decreased stability. They also exhibited profoundly decreased suppressive function as compared to CCR6– WT and CCR6– Il4raR576 counterparts. Transcriptional profiling of CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells revealed increased relative expression in CCR6+ Il4raR576 Treg cells of genes associated with a TH17 cell signature, including Rorc, Ccr6, Il23r, Il17a, Il17f, Il1r1, Nr1d1, Cstl, and Ahr comparing to CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells from same animals. Three CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Il4raR576 replicates and four CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Il4raR576 Treg replicates (controls) were sampled
Project description:In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Overall design: Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes in CCR4hi/CXCR3- and CCR4lo CXCR3+ CCR6+ human Th17 cell subsets Human CD45RO+ memory T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy adult donors were sorted into 4 predominant CCR7lo CD25- effector memory subsets: (1) Th1 - CCR6- CCR4lo CXCR3+; (2) Th2 - CCR6- CCR4hi CXCR3+; (3) Th17 - CCR6+ CCR4hi CXCR3-; (4) Th17.1 - CCR6+ CCR4lo CXCR3-. Sorted cells were cultured in media and activated via anti-CD3/anti-CD28 beads for 36 hours. All subsets were then harvested and used for RNA extraction and microarray experiments. Th1 vs Th2; Th1 vs Th17; Th1 vs Th17.1; Th2 vs Th17; Th2 vs Th17.1; Th17 vs Th17.1