Project description:Multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells can be induced to differentiate into mature brown adipocytes by 3-days BMP7 pretreatment followed by standard adipogenic induction. In this study, we used microRNA array to identify the microRNAs that were regulated by 3-days BMP7 treatment in C3H10T1/2 cells. One BMP7-treated sample and one vehicle-treated sample were used in this study to obtain the fold expression of microRNAs between BMP7 vs vehicle.
Project description:Multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells can be induced to differentiate into mature brown adipocytes by 3-days BMP7 pretreatment followed by standard adipogenic induction. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression in C3H10T1/2 cells after 3-day BMP7 (3.3 nM) treatment. Overall design: C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with 3.3 nM BMP7 for 3 days, and then total RNAs were extracted for microarray using Affymetrix GeneChip mouse 430A.
Project description:Quantifying regulatory gene effects on dental morphology and function has implications for the underlying mechanisms that generated dental diversity in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that regulatory gene expression changes lead to differences in molars using a neural crest knockout of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in Mus musculus. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify the shape of the molar toothrow. BMP7 mutants have extra cusps on the first upper and lower molars, and alterations in cusp orientation and morphology. Furthermore, significant shape differences between control and mutant were found for upper and lower toothrows. Mutant mice also exhibited differences in attrition facets, indicating functional changes that could lead to advantages in chewing new food resources and eventually niche diversification. The size ratio of the molars in the toothrow remained unchanged, implying that BMP7-induced changes in molar size ratio are a result of knocking out epithelial, rather than neural crest, expression of BMP7. Our results indicate that changes in BMP7 expression are sufficient to alter the morphology and function of the toothrow, suggesting that BMP7 or genes affecting its function could have played a role in structuring the dental diversity of extinct and extant mammals.
Project description:Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification. Uremia and vascular calcification were induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, high phosphate diet and alfacalcidol treatment. After 14 weeks severe vascular calcification was present and rats were allocated to BMP7, vehicle or aorta transplantation. BMP7 treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma phosphate to 1.56 ± 0.17 mmol/L vs 2.06 ± 0.34 mmol/L in the vehicle group even in the setting of uremia and high phosphate diet. Uremia and alfacalcidol resulted in an increase in aortic expression of genes related to fibrosis, osteogenic transformation and extracellular matrix calcification, and the BMP7 treatment resulted in a decrease in the expression of profibrotic genes. The total Ca-content of the aorta was however unchanged both in the abdominal aorta: 1.9 ± 0.6 ?g/mg tissue in the vehicle group vs 2.2 ± 0.6 ?g/mg tissue in the BMP7 group and in the thoracic aorta: 71 ± 27 ?g/mg tissue in the vehicle group vs 54 ± 18 ?g/mg tissue in the BMP7 group. Likewise, normalization of the uremic environment by aorta transplantation had no effect on the Ca-content of the calcified aorta: 16.3 ± 0.6 ?g/mg tissue pre-transplantation vs 15.9 ± 2.3 ?g/mg tissue post-transplantation. Aortic expression of genes directly linked to extracellular matrix calcification was not affected by BMP7 treatment, which hypothetically might explain persistent high Ca-content in established vascular calcification. The present results highlight the importance of preventing the development of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Once established, vascular calcification persists even in the setting when hyperphosphatemia or the uremic milieu is abolished.
Project description:The focus of this study was to determine whether bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) trigger reactive gliosis in retinal astrocytes and/or Müller glial cells.Retinal astrocytes and the Müller glial cell line MIO-M1 were treated with vehicle, BMP7, or BMP4. Samples from the treated cells were analyzed for changes in gliosis markers using reverse transcriptase - quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. To determine potential similarities and differences in gliosis states, control and BMP-treated cells were compared to cells treated with sodium peroxynitrite (a strong oxidizing agent that will bring about some aspects of gliosis). Last, mature mice were microinjected intravitreally with BMP7 and analyzed for changes in gliosis markers using RT-qPCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry.Treatment of retinal astrocyte cells and Müller glial cells with BMP7 regulated various reactive gliosis markers. When compared to the response of cells treated with sodium peroxynitrite, the profiles of gliosis markers regulated due to exposure to BMP7 were similar. However, as expected, the profiles including the oxidative agent and growth factor were not identical. Treatment of cells with BMP4, however, showed an attenuated response in comparison to peroxynitrite and BMP7 treatment. Injection of BMP7 into the mouse retina also triggered a reactive gliosis response 7 days after injection.BMP7 induced changes in levels of mRNA and protein markers typically associated with reactive gliosis in retinal astrocytes and Müller glial cells, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), a subset of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and other molecules.
Project description:Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia.Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection. Some mice were treated with PLX5622 (PLX) to ablate microglia and were subsequently injected with control or BMP7. Processed tissue was analyzed via immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, or ELISA. In addition, cultures of retinal microglia were treated with vehicle, lipopolysaccharide, or BMP7 to determine the effects of BMP7-isolated cells.Mice injected with BMP7 showed regulation of various inflammatory markers at the RNA level, as well as changes in microglial morphology. Isolated retinal microglia also showed an upregulation of BMP-signaling components following treatment. In vitro treatment of retinal astrocytes with conditioned media from activated microglia upregulated RNA levels of gliosis markers. In the absence of microglia, the mouse retina showed a subdued gliosis and inflammatory response when exposed to BMP7.Gliosis resulting from BMP7 is mediated through an inflammatory response from retinal microglia.
Project description:determine genes regulated by dexamethasone in c3h10t1/2 cells after 90 minutes of treatment compared to vehicle Keywords: treatment comparison microarray c3h10t1/2 cells were treated with vehicle or 1uM dexamethasone for 90 minutes (3 biological replicates of each) RNA samples were isolated from RNeasy kit (Qiagen) hybridized all samples to a pool of RNA from vehicle and treated c3h10t1/2 cells