Project description:Penicillium digitatum is the pathogen of Green mold in Postharvest citrus. After inoculating Penicillium digitatum into the wound of citrus to infect it, transcriptome sequencing was carried out and compared with the results of transcriptome sequencing of Penicillium digitatum before inoculation in order to screen the differentially expressed genes and reveal its infection mechanism. Overall design: Penicillium digitatum before and after infected Citrus (Tangerine).
Project description:Penicillium digitatum is the most important pathogen of postharvest citrus. Gene targeting can be done in P. digitatum using homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), but the frequencies are often very low. In the present study, we replaced the Ku80 homolog (a gene of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) with the hygromycin resistance cassette (hph) by ATMT. No significant change in vegetative growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity was observed in Ku80-deficient strain (?PdKu80) of P. digitatum. However, using ?PdKu80 as a targeting strain, the gene-targeting frequencies for both genes PdbrlA and PdmpkA were significantly increased. These results suggest that Ku80 plays an important role in homologous integration and the created ?PdKu80 strain would be a good candidate for rapid gene function analysis in P. digitatum.
Project description:Pathogenic fungi including Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the main destructive pathogens in the citrus industry, causing great losses during postharvest process. To our knowledge, only one mycovirus from P. digitatum has been reported, and the prevalence of such mycoviruses against citrus postharvest pathogenic fungi and their genotyping were still under investigation. In the present study, we showed that 39 of 152 Penicillium isolates from main citrus-growing areas in China were infected with various mycoviruses belonging to polymycoviruses, Narna-like viruses, and families Totiviridae, Partitivirdae and Chrysoviridae. The next generation sequencing (NGS) towards virus genome library and the following molecular analysis revealed two novel mycoviruses Penicillium digitatum polymycovirus 1 (PdPmV1) and Penicillium digitatum Narna-like virus 1 (PdNLV1), coexisting in P. digitatum strain HS-RH2. The fungicide-resistant P. digitatum strains HS-F6 and HS-E9 coinfected by PdPmV1 and PdNLV1 exhibited obvious reduction in triazole drug prochloraz resistance by mycelial growth analysis on both PDA plates and citrus fruit epidermis with given prochloraz concentration. This report at the first time characterized two novel mycoviruses from P. digitatum and revealed the mycovirus-induced reduction of fungicide resistance.
Project description:Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. RESULTS: The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. CONCLUSIONS: The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.
Project description:Demethylation inhibitor (DMI)-resistant strains of the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium digitatum were shown to be simultaneously resistant to cycloheximide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), and acriflavine. A PMR1 (Penicillium multidrug resistance) gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (P-glycoprotein) was cloned from a genomic DNA library of a DMI-resistant strain (LC2) of Penicillium digitatum by heterologous hybridization with a DNA fragment containing an ABC-encoding region from Botrytis cinerea. Sequence analysis revealed significant amino acid homology to the primary structures of PMR1 (protein encoded by the PMR1 gene) and ABC transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PDR5 and SNQ2), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (HBA2), Candida albicans (CDR1), and Aspergillus nidulans (AtrA and AtrB). Disruption of the PMR1 gene of P. digitatum DMI-resistant strain LC2 demonstrated that PMR1 was an important determinant of resistance to DMIs. The effective concentrations inhibiting radial growth by 50% (EC50s) and the MICs of fenarimol and bitertanol for the PMR1 disruptants (Deltapmr1 mutants) were equivalent to those for DMI-sensitive strains. Northern blot analysis indicated that severalfold more PMR1 transcript accumulated in the DMI-resistant strains compared with those in DMI-sensitive strains in the absence of fungicide. In both DMI-resistant and -sensitive strains, transcription of PMR1 was strongly enhanced within 10 min after treatment with the DMI fungicide triflumizole. These results suggested that the toxicant efflux system comprised of PMR1 participates directly in the DMI resistance of the fungus.
Project description:Penicillium digitatum is the main fungal postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit under Mediterranean climate conditions. The role of ethylene in the P. digitatum-citrus fruit interaction is unclear and controversial. We analyzed the involvement of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE)-encoding gene (efeA) of P. digitatum on the pathogenicity of the fungus. The expression of P. digitatumefeA parallels ethylene production during growth on PDA medium, with maximum levels reached during sporulation. We generated ?efeA knockout mutants in P. digitatum strain Pd1. These mutants showed no significant defect on mycelial growth or sporulation compared to the parental strain. However, the knockout mutants did not produce ethylene in vitro. Citrus pathogenicity assays showed no differences in virulence between the parental and ?efeA knockout mutant strains, despite a lack of ethylene production by the knockout mutant throughout the infection process. This result suggests that ethylene plays no role in P. digitatum pathogenicity. Our results clearly show that EFE-mediated ethylene synthesis is the major ethylene synthesis pathway in the citrus postharvest pathogen P. digitatum during both in vitro growth on PDA medium and the infection process, and that this hormone is not necessary for establishing P. digitatum infection in citrus fruit. However, our results also indicate that ethylene produced by P. digitatum during sporulation on the fruit surface may influence the development of secondary fungal infections.
Project description:The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are key regulators for sterol homeostasis in most fungi. In the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum, the SREBP homolog is required for fungicide resistance and regulation of CYP51 expression. In this study, we identified another SREBP transcription factor PdSreB in P. digitatum, and the biological functions of both SREBPs were characterized and compared. Inactivation of PdsreA, PdsreB or both genes in P. digitatum reduced ergosterol contents and increased sensitivities to sterol 14-?-demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) and cobalt chloride. Fungal strains impaired at PdsreA but not PdsreB increased sensitivity to tridemorph and an iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. Virulence assays on citrus fruit revealed that fungal strains impaired at PdsreA, PdsreB or both induce maceration lesions similar to those induced by wild-type. However, ?PdsreA, ?PdsreB or the double mutant strain rarely produce aerial mycelia on infected citrus fruit peels. RNA-Seq analysis showed the broad regulatory functions of both SREBPs in biosynthesis, transmembrane transportation and stress responses. Our results provide new insights into the conserved and differentiated regulatory functions of SREBP homologs in plant pathogenic fungi.
Project description:Filamentous fungi encode distinct antifungal proteins (AFPs) that offer great potential to develop new antifungals. Fungi are considered immune to their own AFPs as occurs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the producer of the well-known PAF. The Penicillium digitatum genome encodes only one afp gene (afpB), and the corresponding protein (AfpB) belongs to the class B phylogenetic cluster. Previous attempts to detect AfpB were not successful. In this work, immunodetection confirmed the absence of AfpB accumulation in wild type and previous recombinant constitutive P. digitatum strains. Biotechnological production and secretion of AfpB were achieved in P. digitatum with the use of a P. chrysogenum-based expression cassette and in the yeast Pichia pastoris with the ?-factor signal peptide. Both strategies allowed proper protein folding, efficient production and single-step purification of AfpB from culture supernatants. AfpB showed antifungal activity higher than the P. chrysogenum PAF against the majority of the fungi tested, especially against Penicillium species and including P. digitatum, which was highly sensitive to the self-AfpB. Spectroscopic data suggest that native folding is not required for activity. AfpB also showed notable ability to withstand protease and thermal degradation and no haemolytic activity, making AfpB a promising candidate for the control of pathogenic fungi.
Project description:Penicillium digitatum causes serious losses in postharvest citrus fruit. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) can induce fruit resistance against various pathogens, but the mechanism remains unclear. Herein, a transcriptome-based approach was used to investigate the underlying mechanism of SA-induced citrus fruit resistance against P. digitatum. We found that CsWRKY70 and genes related to methyl salicylate (MeSA) biosynthesis (salicylate carboxymethyltransferase, SAMT) were induced by exogenous SA. Moreover, significant MeSA accumulation was detected in the SA-treated citrus fruit. The potential involvement of CsWRKY70 in regulating CsSAMT expression in citrus fruit was studied. Subcellular localization, dual luciferase, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays and an analysis of transient expression in fruit peel revealed that the nucleus-localized transcriptional activator CsWRKY70 can activate the CsSAMT promoter by recognizing the W-box element. Taken together, the findings from this study offer new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of exogenous SA-induced disease resistance in Citrus sinensis fruit.