Project description:Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer and is predicted to claim 49,700 lives in the United States this year. Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in 80% to 90% of colon cancers and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. To investigate the impact of CIN on colon cancer development, we developed shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (-/+) mice, an animal model focusing on mitotic error-induced CIN. In this study, we analyzed signature changes in the colonic transcriptome of Sgo1(-/+) mice to examine the molecular events underlying the altered carcinogenesis profiles in Sgo1(-/+) mice. We performed next-generation sequencing of normal-looking colonic mucosal tissue from mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane after 24 weeks. Transcriptome profiling revealed 349 hits with a 2-fold expression difference threshold (217 upregulated genes, 132 downregulated genes, P < 0.05). Pathway analyses indicated that the Sgo1-CIN tissues upregulated pathways known to be activated in colon cancer, including lipid metabolism (z score 4.47), Notch signaling (4.47), insulin signaling (3.81), and PPAR pathways (3.75), and downregulated pathways involved in immune responses including allograft rejection (6.69) and graft-versus-host disease (6.54). Notably, stem cell markers were also misregulated. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that systemic CIN results in transcriptomic changes in metabolism, proliferation, cell fate, and immune responses in the colon, which may foster a microenvironment amenable to cancer development. Therefore, therapeutic approaches focusing on these identified pathways may be valuable for colon cancer prevention and treatment.
Project description:Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer. It is predicted to claim 50,310 lives in 2014. Chromosome Instability (CIN) is observed in 80-90% of colon cancers, and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. However, there are no animal models of CIN that have been validated for studies of colon cancer development or drug testing. In this study, we sought to validate a mitotic error-induced CIN model mouse, the Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient mouse, as a colon cancer study model. Wild-type and Sgo1(-/+) mice were treated with the colonic carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). We tracked colon tumor development 12, 24, and 36?wk after treatment to assess progression of colon tumorigenesis. Initially, more precancerous lesions, Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), developed in Sgo1(-/+) mice. However, the ACF did not develop straightforwardly into larger tumors. At the 36-wk endpoint, the number of gross tumors in Sgo1(-/+) mice was no different from that in wild-type controls. However, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis indicated that fully developed colon tumor in Sgo1(-/+) mice carried 13.75 times more CNV. Immunohistological analyses indicated that Sgo1(-/+) mice differentially expressed IL-6, Bcl2, and p16(INK4A) . We propose that formation of ACF in Sgo1(-/+) mice is facilitated by the IL6-STAT3-SOCS3 oncogenic pathway and by the Bcl2-anti-apoptotic pathway, yet further development of the ACF to tumors is inhibited by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor pathway. Manipulating these pathways would be beneficial for inhibiting development of colon cancer with CIN.
Project description:The data shown in this article are related to the research article entitled "Characterization of Sgo1 expression pattern in developing and adult mouse" (Song et al., 2017) . The article provides novel data on Sgo1 gene expression pattern utilizing Sgo1_LacZ_Knock in mouse line and immunohistochemistry in wild type mice. The data presents Sgo1 expression pattern during development, and in post-developmental proliferative and quiescent tissue. The article describes following tissues: developing heart, neural tube, adult colon, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, liver, and testis.
Project description:Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (Ptgs)2 is an enzyme involved in prostaglandin production during the response to mucosal damage. Its expression is regulated, in part, by messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding proteins that control the stability of Ptgs2 mRNA. We used a precise system of colonic injury and repair to identify Ptgs2 mRNA-binding proteins.We used endoscopy-guided mucosal excision to create focal injury sites in colons of mice. Wound beds from wild-type, Ptgs2(-/-), Ptgs2(+/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice were analyzed at 2-day intervals after injury for aspects of repair and Ptgs2 expression. We used cultured colonic mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) that express Ptgs2 to identify and analyze molecules that regulate Ptgs2 expression.Ptgs2(-/-) mice had defects in wound repair, validating the biopsy technique as a system to study the regulation of Ptgs2. Ptgs2(+/-) mice had similar defects in wound healing, so full induction of Ptgs2 is required for wound repair. In wild-type mice, levels of Ptgs2 mRNA increased significantly in the wound bed 2 and 4 days after injury; the highest levels of Ptgs2 were observed in cMSCs. In a functional short hairpin RNA knockdown screen, we identified Igf2bp1, a VICKZ (Vg1 RNA binding protein, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 1, Coding region determinant-binding protein, KH domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer, and Zipcode-binding protein-1) mRNA-binding protein, as a regulator of Ptgs2 expression in cMSCs. Igf2bp1 also interacted physically with Ptgs2 mRNA. Igf2bp1 expression was induced exclusively in wound-bed cMSCs, and full induction of Ptgs2 and Igf2bp1 during repair required Myd88.We identified Igf2bp1 as a regulator of Ptgs2 mRNA in mice. Igf2bp1 is required for full induction of Ptgs2 mRNA in cMSCs.
Project description:Chromosome instability (CIN) is found in 85% of colorectal cancers. Defects in mitotic processes are implicated in high CIN and may be critical events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Shugoshin-1 (SGO1) aids in the maintenance of chromosome cohesion and prevents premature chromosome separation and CIN. In addition, integrity of the centrosome may be compromised due to the deficiency of Cohesin and Sgo1 through the disengagement of centrioles. We report here the generation and characterization of SGO1-mutant mice and show that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 leads to enhanced colonic tumorigenesis. Complete disruption of SGO1 results in embryonic lethality, whereas SGO1+/- mice are viable and fertile. Haploinsufficiency of SGO1 results in genomic instability manifested as missegregation of chromosomes and formation of extra centrosomal foci in both murine embryonic fibroblasts and adult bone marrow cells. Enhanced CIN observed in SGO1-deficient mice resulted in an increase in formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and accelerated development of tumors after exposure to azoxymethane (AOM), a colon carcinogen. Together, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 causes enhanced CIN, colonic preneoplastic lesions and tumorigenesis in mice. SGO1 is essential for the suppression of CIN and tumor formation.
Project description:Expression of the C-type lectin-like receptor CD161 by human T cells is associated with type-17 responses, which play critical regulatory roles in immunity and inflammation at mucosal sites. However, the functions of CD161-expressing T cells in macaques, the pre-clinical model of several human diseases, remain unknown. This study examined the phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD161+ T cells in peripheral blood, mucosal tissues and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques. Majority of CD161-expressing T cells in peripheral blood and lung/intestinal mucosal tissues of rhesus macaques were found to be CD8+CD4- in phenotype. There was a significant enrichment of CD161+CD8+ T cells in the lungs and colonic mucosa (16.1%±6.6 and 16.8%±5.7) in comparison to peripheral blood (4.2%±1.2) and mesenteric lymph nodes (1.3%±0.8). Regardless of the tissue compartment, CD161+CD8+ T cells mainly comprised of ?? T cells and TCR V?7.2+ MAIT cells (up to 80%), and displayed Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses to mitogen stimulation. Mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells were characterized by very high expression of CD69, a recent activation marker that is preferentially expressed on tissue resident cells. Furthermore, lung and colonic mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells showed enhanced IFN-?, IL-17, and Perforin production in comparison to those in blood. Thus, macaque CD161+CD8+ T cells represent mucosal tissue-homing innate-like CD8+ T-cell populations with Th1/Th17 type cytokine and cytotoxic effector functions that can potentially enhance the recruitment of adaptive immune cells and control initial pathogen burden/dissemination in tissues. Analysis of their role in early immune responses to mucosal pathogens will be valuable in the design of vaccines and therapeutics.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by dysregulation of the mucosal immune system resulting from impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function. Protein kinase D2 has been implicated in the regulation of immune responses. The present study was to define PKD2 might affect murine colitis. Colitis was induced in wild-type mice (PKD2(WT/WT)) and PKD2 catalytic activity deficient mice (PKD2(SSAA/SSAA)) with dextran sulfate sodium. PKD2(SSAA)-knockin mice displayed catalytic activity deficiency and increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis with enhanced weight loss, colonic inflammation compared with PKD2(WT/WT) mice. Furthermore, crucial inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in PKD2(SSAA)-knockin mice were higher than controls accompanied with down-regulation of ZO-1, MUC2 and intestinal barrier dysfunction. However, there were no differences in the proliferation or apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in PKD2(SSAA)-knockin mice compared with wild-type controls. In addition, PKD2 expression was repressed in patients with IBD compared with healthy controls. These studies suggested that activation of PKD2 in the colonic epithelium microenvironment may contribute to protect against DSS-induced colitis through regulation of intestinal mucosal immunity and barrier function.
Project description:Intestinal microbiota influences the progression of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. With diet being a key determinant of the gut microbial ecology, dietary interventions are an attractive avenue for the prevention of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Curcumin is the most active constituent of the ground rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant, which has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiproliferative properties.Il10 mice on 129/SvEv background were used as a model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Starting at 10 weeks of age, wild-type or Il10 mice received 6 weekly intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and were started on either a control or a curcumin-supplemented diet. Stools were collected every 4 weeks for microbial community analysis. Mice were killed at 30 weeks of age.Curcumin-supplemented diet increased survival, decreased colon weight/length ratio, and, at 0.5%, entirely eliminated tumor burden. Although colonic histology indicated improvement with curcumin, no effects of mucosal immune responses have been observed in PBS/Il10 mice and limited effects were seen in AOM/Il10 mice. In wild-type and in Il10 mice, curcumin increased bacterial richness, prevented age-related decrease in alpha diversity, increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, and decreased Coriobacterales order. Taxonomic profile of AOM/Il10 mice receiving curcumin was more similar to those of wild-type mice than those fed control diet.In AOM/Il10 model, curcumin reduced or eliminated colonic tumor burden with limited effects on mucosal immune responses. The beneficial effect of curcumin on tumorigenesis was associated with the maintenance of a more diverse colonic microbial ecology.
Project description:The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type controls. Treatment with aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), but not hydralazine (a smooth muscle relaxant), ameliorated colitis in RenTgMK mice, although both drugs normalized blood pressure. Chronic infusion of angiotensin II into wild-type mice mimicked the severe colitic phenotype of RenTgMK mice, and treatment with losartan [an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB)] ameliorated colitis in wild-type mice, confirming a colitogenic role for the endogenous RAS. In human biopsies, pro-inflammatory cytokines were suppressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were on ARB therapy compared to patients not receiving ARB therapy. These observations demonstrate that activation of the RAS promotes colitis in a blood pressure independent manner. Angiotensin II appears to drive colonic mucosal inflammation by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal TH17 responses in colitis development.