Project description:BACKGROUND: Metagenomics, based on culture-independent sequencing, is a well-fitted approach to provide insights into the composition, structure and dynamics of environmental viral communities. Following recent advances in sequencing technologies, new challenges arise for existing bioinformatic tools dedicated to viral metagenome (i.e. virome) analysis as (i) the number of viromes is rapidly growing and (ii) large genomic fragments can now be obtained by assembling the huge amount of sequence data generated for each metagenome. RESULTS: To face these challenges, a new version of Metavir was developed. First, all Metavir tools have been adapted to support comparative analysis of viromes in order to improve the analysis of multiple datasets. In addition to the sequence comparison previously provided, viromes can now be compared through their k-mer frequencies, their taxonomic compositions, recruitment plots and phylogenetic trees containing sequences from different datasets. Second, a new section has been specifically designed to handle assembled viromes made of thousands of large genomic fragments (i.e. contigs). This section includes an annotation pipeline for uploaded viral contigs (gene prediction, similarity search against reference viral genomes and protein domains) and an extensive comparison between contigs and reference genomes. Contigs and their annotations can be explored on the website through specifically developed dynamic genomic maps and interactive networks. CONCLUSIONS: The new features of Metavir 2 allow users to explore and analyze viromes composed of raw reads or assembled fragments through a set of adapted tools and a user-friendly interface.
Project description:Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibiotic resistance developed by bacteria is a significant threat to global health. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) spread across different bacterial populations through multiple dissemination routes, including horizontal gene transfer mediated by bacteriophages. ARGs carried by bacteriophages are considered especially threatening due to their prolonged persistence in the environment, fast replication rates, and ability to infect diverse bacterial hosts. Several studies employing qPCR and viral metagenomics have shown that viral fraction and viral sequence reads in clinical and environmental samples carry many ARGs. However, only a few ARGs have been found in viral contigs assembled from metagenome reads, with most of these genes lacking effective antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Owing to the wide application of viral metagenomics, nevertheless, different classes of ARGs are being continuously found in viral metagenomes acquired from diverse environments. As such, the presence and functionality of ARGs encoded by bacteriophages remain up for debate. RESULTS:We evaluated ARGs excavated from viral contigs recovered from urban surface water viral metagenome data. In virome reads and contigs, diverse ARGs, including polymyxin resistance genes, multidrug efflux proteins, and ?-lactamases, were identified. In particular, when a lenient threshold of e value of ? 1 × e-5 and query coverage of ? 60% were employed in the Resfams database, the novel ?-lactamases blaHRV-1 and blaHRVM-1 were found. These genes had unique sequences, forming distinct clades of class A and subclass B3 ?-lactamases, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration analyses for E. coli strains harboring blaHRV-1 and blaHRVM-1 and catalytic kinetics of purified HRV-1 and HRVM-1 showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin, narrow- and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems. These genes were also found in bacterial metagenomes, indicating that they were harbored by actively infecting phages. CONCLUSION:Our results showed that viruses in the environment carry as-yet-unreported functional ARGs, albeit in small quantities. We thereby suggest that environmental bacteriophages could be reservoirs of widely variable, unknown ARGs that could be disseminated via virus-host interactions. Video abstract.
Project description:The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate an approach for describing the diversity of human pathogenic viruses in an environmentally isolated viral metagenome.In silico bioinformatic experiments were used to select an optimum annotation strategy for discovering human viruses in virome data sets and applied to annotate a class B biosolid virome. Results from the in silico study indicated that <1% errors in virus identification could be achieved when nucleotide-based search programs (BLASTn or tBLASTx), viral genome only databases and sequence reads >200?nt were considered. Within the 51,925 annotated sequences, 94 DNA and 19 RNA sequences were identified as human viruses. Virus diversity included environmentally transmitted agents such as parechovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus and aichi virus, as well as viruses associated with chronic human infections such as human herpes and hepatitis C viruses.This study provided a bioinformatic approach for identifying pathogens in a virome data set and demonstrated the human virus diversity in a relevant environmental sample.?As the costs of next-generation sequencing decrease, the pathogen diversity described by virus metagenomes will provide an unbiased guide for subsequent cell culture and quantitative pathogen analyses and ensures that highly enriched and relevant pathogens are not neglected in exposure and risk assessments.
Project description:Using deep sequencing technologies such as Illumina's platform, it is possible to obtain reads from the viral RNA population revealing the viral genome diversity within a single host. A range of software tools and pipelines can transform raw deep sequencing reads into Sequence Alignment Mapping (SAM) files. We propose that interpretation tools should process these SAM files, directly translating individual reads to amino acids in order to extract statistics of interest such as the proportion of different amino acid residues at specific sites. This preserves per-read linkage between nucleotide variants at different positions within a codon location. The samReporter is a subsystem of the GLUE software toolkit which follows this direct read translation approach in its processing of SAM files. We test samReporter on a deep sequencing dataset obtained from a cohort of 241 UK HCV patients for whom prior treatment with direct-acting antivirals has failed; deep sequencing and resistance testing have been suggested to be of clinical use in this context. We compared the polymorphism interpretation results of the samReporter against an approach that does not preserve per-read linkage. We found that the samReporter was able to properly interpret the sequence data at resistance-associated locations in nine patients where the alternative approach was equivocal. In three cases, the samReporter confirmed that resistance or an atypical substitution was present at NS5A position 30. In three further cases, it confirmed that the sofosbuvir-resistant NS5B substitution S282T was absent. This suggests the direct read translation approach implemented is of value for interpreting viral deep sequencing data.