Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of a vancomycin-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium derived from human feces. The genome comprises one chromosome of 2.9 Mb and three plasmids. The strain harbors a plasmid-borne vanA-type vancomycin resistance locus and is a member of multilocus sequencing type (MLST) cluster ST-17.
Project description:We report the first strain of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium from Europe that contains a vanD allele isolated from blood cultures of an immunocompromised patient hospitalized in a French university hospital. Based on phenotypic results, PCR sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Southern blotting, the isolate was assigned to E. faecium with a chromosomally located VanD allele most closely related to the VanD1 allele.
Project description:The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection.
Project description:A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme has been developed for Enterococcus faecium. Internal fragments from seven housekeeping genes of 123 epidemiologically unlinked isolates from humans and livestock and 16 human-derived isolates from several outbreaks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and The Netherlands were analyzed. A total of 62 sequence types were detected in vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium (VSEF) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) isolates. VSEF isolates were genetically more diverse than VREF isolates. Both VSEF and VREF isolates clustered in host-specific lineages that were similar to the host-specific clustering obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Outbreak isolates from hospitalized humans clustered in a subgroup that was defined by the presence of a unique allele from the housekeeping gene purK and the surface protein gene esp. The MLST results suggest that epidemic lineages of E. faecium emerged recently worldwide, while genetic variation in both VREF and VSEF was created by longer-term recombination. The results show that MLST of E. faecium provides an excellent tool for isolate characterization and long-term epidemiologic analysis.
Project description:The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a frequent cause of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. The mechanisms by which E. faecium can survive and grow in blood during an infection have not yet been characterized. Here, we identify genes that contribute to growth of E. faecium in human serum through transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and a high-throughput transposon mutant library sequencing approach (Tn-seq).We first sequenced the genome of E. faecium E745, a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate, using a combination of short- and long read sequencing, revealing a 2,765,010 nt chromosome and 6 plasmids, with sizes ranging between 9.3 kbp and 223.7 kbp. We then compared the transcriptome of E. faecium E745 during exponential growth in rich medium and in human serum by RNA-seq. This analysis revealed that 27.8% of genes on the E. faecium E745 genome were differentially expressed in these two conditions. A gene cluster with a role in purine biosynthesis was among the most upregulated genes in E. faecium E745 upon growth in serum. The E. faecium E745 transposon mutant library was then used to identify genes that were specifically required for growth of E. faecium in serum. Genes involved in de novo nucleotide biosynthesis (including pyrK_2, pyrF, purD, purH) and a gene encoding a phosphotransferase system subunit (manY_2) were thus identified to be contributing to E. faecium growth in human serum. Transposon mutants in pyrK_2, pyrF, purD, purH and manY_2 were isolated from the library and their impaired growth in human serum was confirmed. In addition, the pyrK_2 and manY_2 mutants were tested for their virulence in an intravenous zebrafish infection model and exhibited significantly attenuated virulence compared to E. faecium E745.Genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and nucleotide biosynthesis of E. faecium are essential for growth in human serum and contribute to the pathogenesis of this organism. These genes may serve as targets for the development of novel anti-infectives for the treatment of E. faecium bloodstream infections.
Project description:Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens with resistance to multiple antibiotics. Adhesion to abiotic materials and biofilm formation on medical devices are considered important virulence properties. A single clonal lineage of Enterococcus faecium, complex 17 (CC17), appears to be a successful nosocomial pathogen, and most CC17 isolates harbor the enterococcal surface protein gene, esp. In this study, we constructed an esp insertion-deletion mutant in a clinical E. faecium CC17 isolate. In addition, initial adherence and biofilm assays were performed. Compared to the wild-type strain, the esp insertion-deletion mutant no longer produced Esp on the cell surface and had significantly lower initial adherence to polystyrene and significantly less biofilm formation, resulting in levels of biofilm comparable to those of an esp-negative isolate. Capacities for initial adherence and biofilm formation were restored in the insertion-deletion mutant by in trans complementation with esp. These results identify Esp as the first documented determinant in E. faecium CC17 with an important role in biofilm formation, which is an essential factor in infection pathogenesis.