Project description:Van der Waals magnets have emerged as a fertile ground for the exploration of highly tunable spin physics and spin-related technology. Two-dimensional (2D) magnons in van der Waals magnets are collective excitation of spins under strong confinement. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding 2D magnons, a crucial magnon device called the van der Waals magnon valve, in which the magnon signal can be completely and repeatedly turned on and off electrically, has yet to be realized. Here we demonstrate such magnon valves based on van der Waals antiferromagnetic insulator MnPS3. By applying DC electric current through the gate electrode, we show that the second harmonic thermal magnon (SHM) signal can be tuned from positive to negative. The guaranteed zero crossing during this tuning demonstrates a complete blocking of SHM transmission, arising from the nonlinear gate dependence of the non-equilibrium magnon density in the 2D spin channel. Using the switchable magnon valves we demonstrate a magnon-based inverter. These results illustrate the potential of van der Waals anti-ferromagnets for studying highly tunable spin-wave physics and for application in magnon-base circuitry in future information technology. A major challenge in magnon based approaches to information processing lies in developing valves to allow or supress the magnon signal. Here, Chen et al demonstrate a van der Waals magnet based magnon valve which can be tuned electrically over an exceptionally wide range.
Project description:Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have demonstrated fascinating optical and electrical characteristics. However, reports on magnetic properties and spintronic applications of van der Waals materials are scarce by comparison. Here, we report anomalous Hall effect measurements on single crystalline metallic Fe3GeTe2 nanoflakes with different thicknesses. These nanoflakes exhibit a single hard magnetic phase with a near square-shaped magnetic loop, large coercivity (up to 550?mT at 2?K), a Curie temperature near 200?K and strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using criticality analysis, the coupling length between van der Waals atomic layers in Fe3GeTe2 is estimated to be ~5 van der Waals layers. Furthermore, the hard magnetic behaviour of Fe3GeTe2 can be well described by a proposed model. The magnetic properties of Fe3GeTe2 highlight its potential for integration into van der Waals magnetic heterostructures, paving the way for spintronic research and applications based on these devices.
Project description:Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.
Project description:Atomically thin 2D van der Waals semiconductors are promising candidates for next-generation nanoscale field-effect transistors (FETs). Although large-area 2D van der Waals materials have been successfully synthesized, such nanometer-length-scale devices have not been well demonstrated in 2D van der Waals semiconductors. Here, controllable nanometer-scale transistors with a channel length of ?10 nm are fabricated via vertical channels by squeezing an ultrathin insulating spacer between the out-of-plane source and drain electrodes, and the feasibility of high-density and large-scale fabrication is demonstrated. A large on-current density of ?70 µA µm-1 nm-1 at a source-drain voltage of 0.5 V and a high on/off ratio of ?107-109 are obtained in ultrashort 2D vertical channel FETs with monolayer MoS2 synthesized through chemical vapor deposition. The work provides a promising route toward the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible fabrication of wafer-scale 2D van der Waals transistors with high-density integration.
Project description:The study of van der Waals interactions plays a central role in the understanding of bonding across a range of biological, chemical and physical phenomena. The presence of van der Waals interactions can be identified through analysis of the reduced density gradient, a fundamental parameter at the core of Density Functional Theory. An extension of Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules is developed here through combination with the analysis of the reduced density gradient. Through this development, a new quantum chemical topological tool is presented: the volumetric source function. This technique allows insight into the atomic composition of van der Waals interactions, offering the first route towards applying the highly successful source function to these disperse interactions. A new algorithm has been implemented in the open-source code, CRITIC2, and tested on acetone, adipic and maleic acids molecular crystals, each stabilized by van der Waals interactions. This novel technique for studying van der Waals interactions at an atomic level offers unprecedented opportunities in the fundamental study of intermolecular interactions and molecular design for crystal engineering, drug design and bio-macromolecular processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prediction of ligand binding or protein structure requires very accurate force field potentials - even small errors in force field potentials can make a 'wrong' structure (from the billions possible) more stable than the single, 'correct' one. However, despite huge efforts to optimize them, currently-used all-atom force fields are still not able, in a vast majority of cases, even to keep a protein molecule in its native conformation in the course of molecular dynamics simulations or to bring an approximate, homology-based model of protein structure closer to its native conformation. RESULTS:A strict analysis shows that a specific coupling of multi-atom Van der Waals interactions with covalent bonding can, in extreme cases, increase (or decrease) the interaction energy by about 20-40% at certain angles between the direction of interaction and the covalent bond. It is also shown that on average multi-body effects decrease the total Van der Waals energy in proportion to the square root of the electronic component of dielectric permittivity corresponding to dipole-dipole interactions at small distances, where Van der Waals interactions take place. CONCLUSION:The study shows that currently-ignored multi-atom Van der Waals interactions can, in certain instances, lead to significant energy effects, comparable to those caused by the replacement of atoms (for instance, C by N) in conventional pairwise Van der Waals interactions.
Project description:Similar to silicon-based semiconductor devices, van der Waals heterostructures require integration with high-<i>k</i> oxides. Here, we demonstrate a method to embed and pattern a multifunctional few-nanometer-thick high-<i>k</i> oxide within various van der Waals devices without degrading the properties of the neighboring two-dimensional materials. This transformation allows for the creation of several fundamental nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including flexible Schottky barrier field-effect transistors, dual-gated graphene transistors, and vertical light-emitting/detecting tunneling transistors. Furthermore, upon dielectric breakdown, electrically conductive filaments are formed. This filamentation process can be used to electrically contact encapsulated conductive materials. Careful control of the filamentation process also allows for reversible switching memories. This nondestructive embedding of a high-<i>k</i> oxide within complex van der Waals heterostructures could play an important role in future flexible multifunctional van der Waals devices.
Project description:Van der Waals integration with abundant two-dimensional materials provides a broad basis for assembling functional devices. In a specific van der Waals heterojunction, the band alignment engineering is crucial and feasible to realize high performance and multifunctionality. Here, we design a ferroelectric-tuned van der Waals heterojunction device structure by integrating a GeSe/MoS<sub>2</sub> VHJ and poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)-based ferroelectric polymer. An ultrahigh electric field derived from the ferroelectric polarization can effectively modulate the band alignment of the GeSe/MoS<sub>2</sub> heterojunction. Band alignment transition of the heterojunction from type II to type I is demonstrated. The combination of anisotropic GeSe with MoS<sub>2</sub> realizes a high-performance polarization-sensitive photodetector exhibiting low dark current of approximately 1.5 pA, quick response of 14 μs, and high detectivity of 4.7 × 10<sup>12</sup> Jones. Dichroism ratios are also enhanced by ferroelectric polarization in a broad spectrum from visible to near-infrared. The ferroelectric-tuned GeSe/MoS<sub>2</sub> van der Waals heterojunction has great potential for multifunctional detection applications in sophisticated light information sensing. More profoundly, the ferroelectric-tuned van der Waals heterojunction structure provides a valid band-engineering approach to creating versatile devices.
Project description:Recent studies have reported incipient morphological caste dimorphism in the Van der Vecht organ size of some temperate Polistes paper wasps. Whether species other than the temperate ones show a similar pattern remains elusive. Here, we have studied some Neotropical Polistes species. By comparing females collected through the year, we showed caste related differences in the size of the Van der Vecht organ in P. ferreri (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.45 ± 0.06, workers = 0.38 ± 0.07 mm2, p = 0.0021), P. versicolor (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.54 ± 0.11, workers = 0.46 ± 0.09 mm2, p = 0.010), but not P. simillimus (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.52 ± 0.05, workers = 0.49 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.238). Therefore, it seems that queens and workers of some Neotropical Polistes have diverged in their ontogenic trajectory of the Van der Vecht organ size, providing clear evidence for incipient morphological caste dimorphism. As Polistes are distributed mostly in the tropics, we propose that physical caste differences may be widespread in the genus. Also, we highlight that morphological divergence in the queen-worker phenotypes may have started through differential selection of body structures, like the Van der Vecht organ.
Project description:Van der Woude Syndrome is the most common form of syndromic orofacial clefting, accounting for 2% of all cases, and has the phenotype that most closely resembles the more common non-syndromic forms. The syndrome has an autosomal dominant hereditary pattern with variable expressivity and a high degree of penetrance with cardinal clinical features of lip pits with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. This case report describes van der Woude syndrome in a 19 year old male patient with a specific reference to the various aspects of this condition, as clinical appearance, etiological factors (genetic aspects), differential diagnosis, investigative procedures and management. Key words:Cleft palate, cleft lip, lip pits, van der Woude syndrome, syndromic clefting.