Project description:Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments.
Project description:We report the isolation and characterization of two Elizabethkingia anophelis strains (OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2) isolated from sources associated with horses in Oklahoma. Both strains appeared susceptible to fluoroquinolones and demonstrated high MICs to all cell wall active antimicrobials including vancomycin, along with aminoglycosides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Typical of the Elizabethkingia, both draft genomes contained multiple copies of ?-lactamase genes as well as genes predicted to function in antimicrobial efflux. Phylogenetic analysis of the draft genomes revealed that OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2 differ by only 6 SNPs and are in a clade with 3 strains of Elizabethkingia anophelis that were responsible for human infections. These findings therefore raise the possibility that Elizabethkingia might have the potential to move between humans and animals in a manner similar to known zoonotic pathogens.
Project description:The Elizabethkingia are a genetically diverse genus of emerging pathogens that exhibit multidrug resistance to a range of common antibiotics. Two representative species, Elizabethkingia bruuniana and E. meningoseptica, were phenotypically tested to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for five antibiotics. Ultra-long read sequencing with Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) and subsequent de novo assembly produced complete, gapless circular genomes for each strain. Alignment based annotation with Prokka identified 5,480 features in E. bruuniana and 5,203 features in E. meningoseptica, where none of these identified genes or gene combinations corresponded to observed phenotypic resistance values. Pan-genomic analysis, performed with an additional 19 Elizabethkingia strains, identified a core-genome size of 2,658,537 bp, 32 uniquely identifiable intrinsic chromosomal antibiotic resistance core-genes and 77 antibiotic resistance pan-genes. Using core-SNPs and pan-genes in combination with six machine learning (ML) algorithms, binary classification of clindamycin and vancomycin resistance achieved f1 scores of 0.94 and 0.84, respectively. Performance on the more challenging multiclass problem for fusidic acid, rifampin and ciprofloxacin resulted in f1 scores of 0.70, 0.75, and 0.54, respectively. By producing two sets of quality biological predictors, pan-genome genes and core-genome SNPs, from long-read sequence data and applying an ensemble of ML techniques, our results demonstrated that accurate phenotypic inference, at multiple AMR resolutions, can be achieved.
Project description:The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus. Genomospecies 1 and 2 contain the type strains E. anophelis and E. miricola, respectively. Genomospecies 3 and 4 are herein proposed as novel species named as Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov. (type strain, G0146T = DSM 2975T = CCUG 69503T = CIP 111191T) and Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov. (type strain, G4122T = DSM 2974T = CCUG 69496T = CIP 111192T), respectively. Finally, the new species Elizabethkingia occulta sp. nov. (type strain G4070T = DSM 2976T = CCUG 69505T = CIP 111193T), is proposed.
Project description:We report the draft genome assembly of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica strain 502. The sample was isolated from the wound of a repatriated military serviceperson who suffered major trauma from an improvised explosive device (IED), resulting in wounds with extensive environmental contamination. E. meningoseptica was isolated from wounds in both legs. The draft genome assembly has 21 contigs with a total size of 3,960,744 bases. The genome contains genes encoding 26 putative ?-lactamases.
Project description:In a hospital-acquired infection with multidrug-resistant Elizabethkingia, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the pathogen as Elizabethkingia miricola. Whole-genome sequencing, genus-level core genome analysis, and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization of 35 Elizabethkingia strains indicated that the species taxonomy should be further explored.
Project description:We provide complete circularized genome sequences of two mosquito-derived Elizabethkingia anophelis strains with draft sequences currently in the public domain (R26 and Ag1), and two novel E. anophelis strains derived from a different mosquito species, Anopheles sinensis (AR4-6 and AR6-8). The genetic similarity of all four mosquito-derived strains is remarkable.
Project description:Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging global multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen. We assessed the diversity among 13 complete genomes and 23 draft genomes of E. anophelis strains derived from various environmental settings and human infections from different geographic regions around the world from 1950s to the present. Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) were identified in 31/36 (86.1%) strains in the study. A total of 52 putative ICEs (including eight degenerated elements lacking integrases) were identified and categorized into three types based on the architecture of the conjugation module and the phylogeny of the relaxase, coupling protein, TraG, and TraJ protein sequences. The type II and III ICEs were found to integrate adjacent to tRNA genes, while type I ICEs integrate into intergenic regions or into a gene. The ICEs carry various cargo genes, including transcription regulator genes and genes conferring antibiotic resistance. The adaptive immune CRISPR-Cas system was found in nine strains, including five strains in which CRISPR-Cas machinery and ICEs coexist at different locations on the same chromosome. One ICE-derived spacer was present in the CRISPR locus in one strain. ICE distribution in the strains showed no geographic or temporal patterns. The ICEs in E. anophelis differ in architecture and sequence from CTnDOT, a well-studied ICE prevalent in Bacteroides spp. The categorization of ICEs will facilitate further investigations of the impact of ICE on virulence, genome epidemiology, and adaptive genomics of E. anophelis IMPORTANCE Elizabethkingia anophelis is an opportunistic human pathogen, and the genetic diversity between strains from around the world becomes apparent as more genomes are sequenced. Genome comparison identified three types of putative ICEs in 31 of 36 strains. The diversity of ICEs suggests that they had different origins. One of the ICEs was discovered previously from a large E. anophelis outbreak in Wisconsin in the United States; this ICE has integrated into the mutY gene of the outbreak strain, creating a mutator phenotype. Similar to ICEs found in many bacterial species, ICEs in E. anophelis carry various cargo genes that enable recipients to resist antibiotics and adapt to various ecological niches. The adaptive immune CRISPR-Cas system is present in nine of 36 strains. An ICE-derived spacer was found in the CRISPR locus in a strain that has no ICE, suggesting a past encounter and effective defense against ICE.
Project description:Bacteria of the genus Elizabethkingia are emerging infectious agents that can cause infection in humans. The number of published whole-genome sequences of Elizabethkingia is rapidly increasing. In this study, we used comparative genomics to investigate the genomes of the six species in the Elizabethkingia genus, namely E. meningoseptica, E. anophelis, E. miricola, E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny, pan genome analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed, and clusters of orthologous groups were evaluated. Of the 86 whole-genome sequences available in GenBank, 21 were complete genome sequences and 65 were shotgun sequences. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization clearly delineated the six Elizabethkingia species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta were closer to E. miricola than to E. meningoseptica and E. anophelis. A total of 2,609 clusters of orthologous groups were identified among the six type strains of the Elizabethkingia genus. Metabolism-related clusters of orthologous groups accounted for the majority of gene families in KEGG analysis. New genes were identified that substantially increased the total repertoire of the pan genome after the addition of 86 Elizabethkingia genomes, which suggests that Elizabethkingia has shown adaptive evolution to environmental change. This study presents a comparative genomic analysis of Elizabethkingia, and the results of this study provide knowledge that facilitates a better understanding of this microorganism.