Project description:Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53.19% GC content and 78% of genes were assigned a putative function. The genome contains four prophages of which 3 regions are intact and no CRISPER was detected. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JXAF00000000.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. strain EA-1 is an electrochemically active bacterium isolated from tropical sediment in Singapore. Here, the annotated draft genome assembly of the bacterium is reported. Whole-genome comparison indicates that Enterobacter sp. EA-1, along with a previously sequenced Enterobacter isolate from East Asia, forms a distinct clade within the Enterobacter genus.
Project description:Enterobacter massiliensis strain JC163(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of E. massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Enterobacter. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. E. massiliensis is an aerobic rod. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,922,247 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) exhibits a G+C content of 55.1% and contains 4,644 protein-coding and 80 RNA genes, including 5 rRNA genes.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpaxdeltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents.
Project description:The genus Enterobacter comprises common pathogens and has a complicated taxonomy. Precise taxonomic assignation lays a foundation for microbiology. In this study, we updated the Enterobacter taxonomy based on robust genome analyses. We found that all Enterobacter subspecies assignments were incorrect. Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii are species (Enterobacter dissolvens and Enterobacter hoffmannii, respectively) rather than subspecies. Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii are not Enterobacter hormaechei subspecies but belong to the same species (Enterobacter xiangfangensis). Enterobacter timonensis should be removed to Pseudenterobacter, a novel genus. We then reported two novel species, Enterobacter quasiroggenkampii and Enterobacter quasimori, by genome- and phenotype-based characterization. We also applied the updated taxonomy to curate 1,997 Enterobacter genomes in GenBank. Species identification was changed following our updated taxonomy for the majority of publicly available strains (1,542, 77.2%). The most common Enterobacter species was E. xiangfangensis We identified 14 novel tentative Enterobacter genomospecies. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct identification.IMPORTANCE Enterobacter species are major human pathogens. Precise species identification lays a foundation for microbiology, but the taxonomy of Enterobacter is complicated and confusing. In this study, first, we significantly updated the taxonomy of Enterobacter by rigorous genome analyses and found that all subspecies assignments of Enterobacter were incorrect. Second, we characterized and reported two novel Enterobacter species with clinical significance. Third, we curated 1,997 Enterobacter genome sequences deposited in GenBank and found that the species identification of most Enterobacter strains needed to be corrected. Fourth, we found that the most common Enterobacter species seen in clinical samples is Enterobacter xiangfangensis rather than Enterobacter cloacae Fifth, we identified 14 tentative novel Enterobacter and 18 tentative novel non-Enterobacter species. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct species identification. We recommend that future Enterobacter studies need to use the updated taxonomy to avoid misleading information.
Project description:Background: The predominant species in clinical Enterobacter isolates is E. hormaechei. Many articles, clinicians, and GenBank submissions misname these strains as E. cloacae. The lack of sequenced type strains or named species/subspecies for some clades in the E. cloacae complex complicate the issue. Methods: The genomes of the type strains for Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, and E. xiangfangensis, and two strains from Hoffmann clusters III and IV of the E. cloacae complex were sequenced. These genomes, the E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei type strain, and other available Enterobacter type strains were analysed in conjunction with all extant Enterobacter genomes in NCBI's RefSeq using Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI). Results: There were five recognizable subspecies of E. hormaechei: E. hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii subsp. nov., E. hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis comb. nov., and the three previously known subspecies. One of the strains sequenced from the E. cloacae complex was not a novel E. hormaechei subspecies but rather a member of a clade of a novel species: E. roggenkampii sp. nov.. E. muelleri was determined to be a later heterotypic synonym of E. asburiae which should take precedence. Conclusion: The phylogeny of the Enterobacter genus, particularly the cloacae complex, was re-evaluated based on the type strain genome sequences and all other available Enterobacter genomes in RefSeq.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Six independent Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing rod-shaped isolates were obtained from the root endosphere of rice grown at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. RESULTS: The strains produced fatty acid patterns typical for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA as well as rpoB genes allocated the strains to two well-defined groups within the genus Enterobacter, family Enterobacteriaceae. The analyses indicated Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter arachidis and Enterobacter oryzae to be the closest related species. An RpoB (translated) protein comparison supported the placement in the genus Enterobacter and the relatedness of our isolates to the aforementioned species. Genomic DNA:DNA hybridization analyses and biochemical analyses provided further evidence that the novel strains belong to two new species within the genus Enterobacter. The two species can be differentiated from each other and from existing enteric species by acid production from L-rhamnose and D-melibiose, decarboxylation of ornithine and utilization of D-alanine, D-raffinose L-proline and L-aspartic acid, among other characteristics. Members of both species revealed capacities to colonise rice roots, including plant-growth-promoting capabilities such as an active supply of fixed nitrogen to the plant and solubilisation of inorganic phosphorus, next to traits allowing adaptation to the plant. CONCLUSIONS: Two novel proposed enterobacterial species, denominated Enterobacter oryziphilus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_142(T)=LMG 26429(T)=NCCB 100393(T)) and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_082(T)=LMG 26432(T) =NCCB 100390(T)) were isolated from rice roots. Both species are capable of promoting rice growth by supplying nitrogen and phosphorus.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Acinetobacter sp. strain EKM10A, Enterobacter hormaechei EKM10E, and Enterobacter hormaechei EKM11E, containing 3,978,352, 4,760,222, and 4,758,163?bp, respectively. These seed biogel-associated endophytes were previously isolated from the seed wash of Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) and tested in vitro for antagonism against soilborne fungal/oomycete pathogens.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. LU1, a wild-type bacterium originating from goat rumen, proved to be a potential succinic acid producer in previous studies. Here, the first complete genome of this strain was obtained and analyzed from a biotechnological perspective. A hybrid sequencing approach combining short (Illumina MiSeq) and long (ONT MinION) reads allowed us to obtain a single continuous chromosome 4,636,526 bp in size, with an average 55.6% GC content that lacked plasmids. A total of 4425 genes, including 4283 protein-coding genes, 25 ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-, 84 transfer RNA (tRNA)-, and 5 non-coding RNA (ncRNA)-encoding genes and 49 pseudogenes, were predicted. It has been shown that genes involved in transport and metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and the transcription process constitute the major group of genes, according to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) database. The genetic ability of the LU1 strain to metabolize a wide range of industrially relevant carbon sources has been confirmed. The genome exploration indicated that Enterobacter sp. LU1 possesses all genes that encode the enzymes involved in the glycerol metabolism pathway. It has also been shown that succinate can be produced as an end product of fermentation via the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the glyoxylate pathway. The transport system involved in succinate excretion into the growth medium and the genes involved in the response to osmotic and oxidative stress have also been recognized. Furthermore, three intact prophage regions ~70.3 kb, ~20.9 kb, and ~49.8 kb in length, 45 genomic islands (GIs), and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) were recognized in the genome. Sequencing and genome analysis of Enterobacter sp. LU1 confirms many earlier results based on physiological experiments and provides insight into their genetic background. All of these findings illustrate that the LU1 strain has great potential to be an efficient platform for bio-based succinate production.