Project description:Many preterm infants require hyperoxic gas for survival, although it can contribute to lung injury. Experimentally, neonatal hyperoxia leads to persistent alterations in lung structure and increases leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These effects of hyperoxia on the lungs are considered to be caused, at least in part, by increased oxidative stress. Our objective was to determine if dietary supplementation with a known source of antioxidants (tomato juice, TJ) could protect the developing lung from injury caused by breathing hyperoxic gas. Neonatal mice (C57BL6/J) breathed either 65% O2 (hyperoxia) or room air from birth until postnatal day 7 (P7d); some underwent necropsy at P7d and others were raised in room air until adulthood (P56d). In subsets of both groups, drinking water was replaced with TJ (diluted 50:50 in water) from late gestation to necropsy. At P7d and P56d, we analyzed total antioxidant capacity (TAC), markers of oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine and heme oxygenase-1 expression), inflammation (interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression), collagen (COL) and smooth muscle in the lungs; we also assessed lung structure. We quantified macrophages in lung tissue (at P7d) and leukocytes in BALF (at P56d). At P7d, TJ increased pulmonary TAC and COL1?1 expression and attenuated the hyperoxia-induced increase in nitrotyrosine and macrophage influx; however, changes in lung structure were not affected. At P56d, TJ increased TAC, decreased oxidative stress and reversed the hyperoxia-induced increase in bronchiolar smooth muscle. Additionally, TJ alone decreased IL-1? expression, but following hyperoxia TJ increased TNF-? expression and did not alter the hyperoxia-induced increase in leukocyte number. We conclude that TJ supplementation during and after neonatal exposure to hyperoxia protects the lung from some but not all aspects of hyperoxia-induced injury, but may also have adverse side-effects. The effects of TJ are likely due to elevation of circulating antioxidant concentrations.
Project description:TLR4 deficiency causes hypersusceptibility to oxidant-induced injury. We investigated the role of TLR4 in lung protection, using used bone marrow chimeras; cell-specific transgenic modeling; and lentiviral delivery in vivo to knock down or express TLR4 in various lung compartments; and lung-specific VEGF transgenic mice to investigate the effect of TLR4 on VEGF-mediated protection. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen in an enclosed chamber and assessed for survival and lung injury. Primary endothelial cells were stimulated with recombinant VEGF and exposed to hyperoxia or hydrogen peroxide. Endothelium-specific expression of human TLR4 (as opposed to its expression in epithelium or immune cells) increased the survival of TLR4-deficent mice in hyperoxia by 24 h and decreased LDH release and lung cell apoptosis after 72 h of exposure by 30%. TLR4 expression was necessary and sufficient for the protective effect of VEGF in the lungs and in primary endothelial cells in culture. TLR4 knockdown inhibited VEGF signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), Akt, and ERK pathways in lungs and primary endothelial cells and decreased the availability of VEGFR2 at the cell surface. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which TLR4, an innate pattern receptor, interacts with an endothelial survival pathway.
Project description:AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by excessive hyperoxia has been employed as a model of oxidative stress imitating acute respiratory distress syndrome. Under hyperoxic conditions, overloading quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in both lung epithelial and endothelial cells, leading to ALI. Some NADPH oxidase (NOX) family enzymes are responsible for hyperoxia-induced ROS generation in lung epithelial and endothelial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS production in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and ALI induced by hyperoxia are poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we show that dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is a key NOX enzyme that affects hyperoxia-induced ROS production, particularly in type II AECs, leading to lung injury. In DUOX2 mutant mice (DUOX2(thyd/thyd)) or mice in which DUOX2 expression is knocked down in the lungs, hyperoxia-induced ALI was significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. DUOX2 was mainly expressed in type II AECs, but not endothelial cells, and hyperoxia-induced ROS production was markedly reduced in primary type II AECs isolated from DUOX2(thyd/thyd) mice. Furthermore, DUOX2-generated ROS are responsible for caspase-mediated cell death, inducing ERK and JNK phophorylation in type II AECs. INNOVATION: To date, no role for DUOX2 has been defined in hyperoxia-mediated ALI despite it being a NOX homologue and major ROS source in lung epithelium. CONCLUSION: Here, we present the novel finding that DUOX2-generated ROS induce AEC death, leading to hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sphingosine- 1-Phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid and an intracellular as well as an extracellular signaling molecule. S1P ligand specifically binds to five related cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5). S1P levels are tightly regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and catabolism by S1P phosphatases, lipid phosphate phosphatases and S1P lyase. We previously reported that knock down of SphK1 (Sphk1 -/- ) in a neonatal mouse BPD model conferred significant protection against hyperoxia induced lung injury. To better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed on mouse lung tissue using Affymetrix MoGene 2.0 array. RESULTS:Two-way ANOVA analysis was performed and differentially expressed genes under hyperoxia were identified using Sphk1 -/- mice and their wild type (WT) equivalents. Pathway (PW) enrichment analyses identified several signaling pathways that are likely to play a key role in hyperoxia induced lung injury in the neonates. These included signaling pathways that were anticipated such as those involved in lipid signaling, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage/apoptosis, inflammation/immune response, and cell adhesion/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We noted hyperoxia induced downregulation of the expression of genes related to mitotic spindle formation in the WT which was not observed in Sphk1 -/- neonates. Our data clearly suggests a role for SphK1 in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury through elevated inflammation and apoptosis in lung tissue. Further, validation by RT-PCR on 24 differentially expressed genes showed 83% concordance both in terms of fold change and vectorial changes. Our findings are in agreement with previously reported human BPD microarray data and completely support our published in vivo findings. In addition, the data also revealed a significant role for additional unanticipitated signaling pathways involving Wnt and GADD45. CONCLUSION:Using SphK1 knockout mice and differential gene expression analysis, we have shown here that S1P/SphK1 signaling plays a key role in promoting hyperoxia induced DNA damage, inflammation, apoptosis and ECM remodeling in neonatal lungs. It also appears to suppress pro-survival cellular responses involved in normal lung development. We therefore propose SphK1 as a therapeutic target for the development drugs to combat BPD.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate whether the trefoil peptide genes, in concerted action with a miRNA regulatory network, were contributing to nutritional maintrenance. Using a Tff2 knock-out mouse model, 48 specific miRNAs were noted to be significantly deregulated when compared to the wild type strain. Overall design: n = 6 mus musculus wild type samples and n = 6 knock-down experiments have been screened for a currently known mus musculus miRNAs and validated by TaqMan
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate whether the trefoil peptide genes, in concerted action with a miRNA regulatory network, were contributing to nutritional maintrenance. Using a Tff3 knock-out mouse model, 21 specific miRNAs were noted to be significantly deregulated when compared to the wild type strain. Overall design: n = 6 mus musculus wild type samples and n = 6 knock-down experiments have been screened for a currently known mus musculus miRNAs and validated by TaqMan
Project description:Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A enzymes are protective against hyperoxic lung injury (HLI). The molecular pathways and differences in gene expression that modulate these protective effects remain largely unknown. Our objective was to characterize genotype specific differences in the transcriptome and proteome of acute hyperoxic lung injury using the omics platforms: microarray and Reverse Phase Proteomic Array. Wild type (WT), Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a2-/- (8-10 wk, C57BL/6J background) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (FiO2?>?0.95) for 48?hours. Comparison of transcriptome changes in hyperoxia-exposed animals (WT versus knock-out) identified 171 genes unique to Cyp1a1-/- and 119 unique to Cyp1a2-/- mice. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed pathways including apoptosis, DNA repair and early estrogen response that were differentially regulated between WT, Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a2-/- mice. Candidate genes from these pathways were validated at the mRNA and protein level. Quantification of oxidative DNA adducts with 32P-postlabeling also revealed genotype specific differences. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms behind the differences in susceptibility of Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a2-/- mice to HLI and suggest novel pathways that need to be investigated as possible therapeutic targets for acute lung injury.
Project description:Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) has been shown to be a key regulator of inflammation. However, its role in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not been delineated yet. We investigated whether FPR1 plays a pivotal role in regulating lung inflammation and injuries, and whether intratracheally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) attenuate hyperoxic lung inflammation and injuries by down-regulating FPR1. Newborn wild type (WT) or FPR1 knockout (FPR1-/-) C57/BL6 mice were randomly exposed to 80% oxygen or room air for 14 days. At postnatal day (P) 5, 2×10(5) MSCs were intratracheally transplanted. At P14, mice were sacrificed for histopathological and morphometric analyses. Hyperoxia significantly increased lung neutrophils, macrophages, and TUNEL-positive cells, while impairing alveolarization and angiogenesis, along with a significant increase in FPR1 mRNA levels in WT mice. The hyperoxia-induced lung inflammation and lung injuries were significantly attenuated, with the reduced mRNA level of FPR1, in WT mice with MSC transplantation and in FPR1-/- mice, irrespective of MSCs transplantation. However, only MSC transplantation, but not the FPR1 knockout, significantly attenuated the hyperoxia-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells. Our findings indicate that FPR1 play a critical role in regulating lung inflammation and injuries in BPD, and MSCs attenuate hyperoxic lung inflammation and injuries, but not apoptosis, with down regulating, but not direct inhibiting FPR1.