International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 20061001 Pt 10
Seven recently cultured bacterial isolates, although similar in their 16S rRNA gene sequences to Roseburia intestinalis L1-82(T) (DSM 14610(T)), were not sufficiently related for inclusion within existing species, forming three separate clusters in a 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree. The isolates, which were obtained from human stools, were Gram-variable or Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, slightly curved rods; cells from all strains measured approximately 0.5x1.5-5.0 mum and were motile. Two s ...[more]
Project description:Studies on Firmicutes bacteria from the gut are hampered by a lack of gene transfer systems. Here the human colonic anaerobe Roseburia inulinivorans A2-194 was shown to be a transfer recipient for two conjugative transposons, Tn1545 from Eubacterium cellulosolvens and TnK10 from Clostridium saccharolyticum K10.
Project description:The goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is to generate a comprehensive catalog of human-associated microorganisms including reference genomes representing the most common species. Toward this goal, the HMP has characterized the microbial communities at 18 body habitats in a cohort of over 200 healthy volunteers using 16S rRNA gene (16S) sequencing and has generated nearly 1,000 reference genomes from human-associated microorganisms. To determine how well current reference genome collections capture the diversity observed among the healthy microbiome and to guide isolation and future sequencing of microbiome members, we compared the HMP's 16S data sets to several reference 16S collections to create a 'most wanted' list of taxa for sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the diversity of commonly occurring taxa within the HMP cohort microbiome is relatively modest, few novel taxa are represented by these OTUs and many common taxa among HMP volunteers recur across different populations of healthy humans. Taken together, these results suggest that it should be possible to perform whole-genome sequencing on a large fraction of the human microbiome, including the 'most wanted', and that these sequences should serve to support microbiome studies across multiple cohorts. Also, in stark contrast to other taxa, the 'most wanted' organisms are poorly represented among culture collections suggesting that novel culture- and single-cell-based methods will be required to isolate these organisms for sequencing.
Project description:Understanding gut microbiome functions requires cultivated bacteria for experimental validation and reference bacterial genome sequences to interpret metagenome datasets and guide functional analyses. We present the Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Culture Collection (HBC), a comprehensive set of 737 whole-genome-sequenced bacterial isolates, representing 273 species (105 novel species) from 31 families found in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. The HBC increases the number of bacterial genomes derived from human gastrointestinal microbiota by 37%. The resulting global Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Genome Collection (HGG) classifies 83% of genera by abundance across 13,490 shotgun-sequenced metagenomic samples, improves taxonomic classification by 61% compared to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) genome collection and achieves subspecies-level classification for almost 50% of sequences. The improved resource of gastrointestinal bacterial reference sequences circumvents dependence on de novo assembly of metagenomes and enables accurate and cost-effective shotgun metagenomic analyses of human gastrointestinal microbiota.
Project description:"Roseburia inulinivorans" is an anaerobic polysaccharide-utilizing firmicute bacterium from the human colon that was identified as a producer of butyric acid during growth on glucose, starch, or inulin. R. inulinivorans A2-194 is also able to grow on the host-derived sugar fucose, following a lag period, producing propionate and propanol as additional fermentation products. A shotgun genomic microarray was constructed and used to investigate the switch in gene expression that is involved in changing from glucose to fucose utilization. This revealed a set of genes coding for fucose utilization, propanediol utilization, and the formation of propionate and propanol that are up-regulated during growth on fucose. These include homologues of genes that are implicated in polyhedral body formation in Salmonella enterica. Dehydration of the intermediate 1,2-propanediol involves an enzyme belonging to the new B12-independent glycerol dehydratase family, in contrast to S. enterica, which relies on a B12-dependent enzyme. A typical gram-positive agr-type quorum-sensing system was also up-regulated in R. inulinivorans during growth on fucose. Despite the lack of genome sequence information for this commensal bacterium, microarray analysis has provided a powerful tool for obtaining new information on its metabolic capabilities.
Project description:Glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) represent a diverse superfamily of enzymes that utilize a radical mechanism to catalyze difficult, but often essential, chemical reactions. In this work we present the first biochemical and structural data for a GRE-type diol dehydratase from the organism Roseburia inulinivorans (RiDD). Despite high sequence (48% identity) and structural similarity to the GRE-type glycerol dehydratase from Clostridium butyricum, we demonstrate that the RiDD is in fact a diol dehydratase. In addition, the RiDD will utilize both (S)-1,2-propanediol and (R)-1,2-propanediol as a substrate, with an observed preference for the S enantiomer. Based on the new structural information we developed and successfully tested a hypothesis that explains the functional differences we observe.
Project description:Identifying causative disease agents in human patients from shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS) presents a powerful tool to apply when other targeted diagnostics fail. Numerous technical challenges remain, however, before SMS can move beyond the role of research tool. Accurately separating the known and unknown organism content remains difficult, particularly when SMS is applied as a last resort. The true amount of human DNA that remains in a sample after screening against the human reference genome and filtering nonbiological components left from library preparation has previously been underreported. In this study, we create the most comprehensive collection of microbial and reference-free human genetic variation available in a database optimized for efficient metagenomic search by extracting sequences from GenBank and the 1000 Genomes Project. The results reveal new human sequences found in individual Human Microbiome Project (HMP) samples. Individual samples contain up to 95% human sequence, and 4% of the individual HMP samples contain 10% or more human reads. Left unidentified, human reads can complicate and slow down further analysis and lead to inaccurately labeled microbial taxa and ultimately lead to privacy concerns as more human genome data is collected.
Project description:Cutibacterium acnes is a member of the normal human skin microbiome. However, it is also associated with skin disorders and persistent infections of orthopedic implants. Here, we announce complete genome sequences and methylomes of the C. acnes subsp. acnes strains DSM 1897T and DSM 16379 together with their active restriction-modification systems.