Project description:Viscum album extract (European mistletoe), containing immuno-active compounds with dose-dependent cytotoxic activity, is being used as an adjuvant cancer treatment in Europe. Few studies have yet been done with high-dose, fever-inducing Viscum album treatment.To explore whether subcutaneous injections of high-dose Viscum album have a preventive effect on risk of recurrence of bladder cancer.We retrospectively analyzed the case records of patients with resectable bladder cancer who underwent initiation of high-dose Viscum album treatment at our clinic between January 2006 and December 2012.We calculated tumor recurrence and progression risk and explored case records to assess whether treatment had a likely, possible, or unlikely beneficial effect.Eight patients were identified, 7 of whom had nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer and 1 with muscle-invasive cancer. Four patients had frequently recurring tumors before treatment. Among the 8 patients, 28 episodes of recurrence were observed. Median tumor-free follow-up duration was 48.5 months. High-dose Viscum album showed a possible beneficial effect in 5 of 8 patients, could not be assessed in 2 patients, and had an uncertain effect in 1 patient. No tumor progression was observed. Treatment was generally well tolerated and no patient stopped treatment because of side effects.High-dose Viscum album treatment may have interrupted frequently recurring tumors in individual patients with recurrent bladder cancer. Prospective studies are needed to assess whether this treatment offers an additional, bladder-sparing preventive option for patients with intermediate- to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.. Treatment was generally well tolerated and no patient stopped treatment because of side effects.
Project description:Viscum album L. is a semiparasitic plant grown on trees and widely used for the treatment of many diseases in traditional and complementary therapy. It is well known that some activities of Viscum album extracts are varied depending on the host trees, such as antioxidant, apoptosis-inducing, anticancer activities of the plant. The aim of the present study is to examine the comparative effects of methanolic extracts of V. album grown on three different host trees (locust tree, lime tree, and hedge maple tree) on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in HeLa cells. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial DNA and two nuclear regions was assessed by QPCR assay. The cells were pretreated with methanolic extracts (10??g/mL) for 48?h, followed by the treatment with 750??M H(2)O(2) for 1 hour. DNA damage was significantly induced by H(2)O(2) while it was inhibited by V. album extracts. All extracts completely protected against nuclear DNA damage. While the extract from lime tree or white locust tree entirely inhibited mitochondrial DNA damage, that from hedge maple tree inhibited by only 50%. These results suggest that methanolic extracts of V. album can prevent oxidative DNA damage, and the activity is dependent on the host tree.
Project description:In chemical pleurodesis for managing pulmonary air leak, tetracycline derivatives are commonly used, and their effectiveness has been established in many studies. Recently, a Viscum album extract was used in chemical pleurodesis. We compared the effects of V. album with those of a tetracycline derivative (doxycycline) to demonstrate the therapeutic effectiveness of the V. album extract in chemical pleurodesis for managing pulmonary air leak.Between October 2010 and October 2016, chemical pleurodesis was performed using doxycycline in 40 patients and the V. album extract in 37 patients. Thirty-three patients were in the postoperative state after pulmonary resection, and 44 patients suffered from spontaneous pneumothorax.No statistically significant difference in the success rate was observed between the 2 groups (V. album extract and doxycycline). In both groups, chest pain was the most common complication. More patients in the doxycycline group complained of severe chest pain (42.1% vs. 13.5%, p=0.006). In the V. album extract group, 24.3% of the patients required a chest tube to drain the pleural effusion after cessation of the air leak (doxycycline group: 5%, p=0.022). Further, the amount of pleural effusion drained on the day after the last chemical pleurodesis in the V. album extract group was greater than that in the doxycycline group (162.2±170.2 mL vs. 97.0±77.2 mL, p=0.032). All patients were discharged from the hospital without complications after pleural effusion drainage.Considering that treatment using the V. album extract was less painful, V. album might be a feasible option for chemical pleurodesis. However, pleural effusion should be monitored carefully when using V. album extract for treating patients suffering from air leak.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, with poor prognosis and outcome in ~70% of initial diagnoses and 10-15% of relapses. Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma. Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We recreated a total mistletoe effect by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) solubilized with cyclodextrins. Ewing sarcoma cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with viscum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, while viscumTT combination treatment generated a synergistic effect. Apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, evidenced by activation of both CASP8 and CASP9. We show that viscumTT treatment shifts the balance of apoptotic regulatory proteins towards apoptosis, mainly via CLSPN, MCL1, BIRC5 and XIAP downregulation. ViscumTT also demonstrated strong antitumor activity in a cell line- and patient-derived mouse model, and may be considered an adjuvant therapy option for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant traditionally used in complementary cancer treatment. Its antitumor potential is mostly attributed to the presence of aqueous soluble metabolites; however, the use of ethanol as solvent also permits the extraction of pharmacological compounds with antitumor potential. The clinical efficacy of mistletoe therapy inspired the present work, which focuses on ethanolic extracts (V. album "mother tinctures", MT) prepared from different host trees. METHODS:Samples from three European subspecies (album, austriacum, and abietis) were harvested, and five different V. album-MT strains were prepared. The following phytochemical analyses were performed: thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The proliferation assay was performed with WST-1 after incubation of tumor (Yoshida and Molt-4) and fibroblast cell lines (NIH/3?T3) with different MT concentrations (0.5 to 0.05% v/v). The cell death mechanism was investigated by flow cytometry (FACS) using Annexin V-7AAD. RESULTS:Chemical analyses of MT showed the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans. The MT flavonoid and viscotoxin contents (mg/g fresh weight) were highest in Quercus robur (9.67?±?0.85?mg/g) and Malus domestica (3.95?±?0.58?mg/mg), respectively. The viscotoxin isoform proportions (% total) were also different among the VA subspecies with a higher content of A3 in V. album growing on Abies alba (60.57?±?2.13). The phytochemical compounds as well as the viscotoxin contents are probably related to the antitumor effects of MT. The cell death mechanisms evaluated by colorimetric and FACS methodologies involved necrotic damage, which was host tree-, time- and dose- dependent, with different selectivity to tumor cells. Mother tincture from V. album ssp. abietis was the most effective at inducing in vitro cellular effects, even when incubated at the smallest concentration tested, probably because of the higher content of VT A3. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate the promising antitumor potential of Viscum album ethanolic extracts and the importance of botanical and phytochemical characterization for in vitro anti-proliferative effects.
Project description:1. The haemagglutinating and toxic lectin from Viscum album L. (mistletoe) inhibits protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 2.6 microgram/ml. This effect is enhanced (ID50 0.21 microgram/ml) if the lectin is reduced with 2-mercaptoethanol. 2. The lectin inhibits protein synthesis also in BL8L cells in culture. Inhibition occurs after a lag time of 3 h. The ID50 is 7 ng/ml, and increases after reduction of the lectin. 3. This and the gross lesions observed in rats poisoned with V. album lectin indicate this is a toxin very similar to ricin.
Project description:Three lectins have been isolated from an extract of mistletoe (Viscum album) by affinity chromatography on partially hydrolysed Sepharose and human immunoglobulin- Sepharose. The lectins differ in molecular weight and sugar specificity (lectin I, mol.wt. 11500, D-galactose-specific; lectin II, mol.wt. 60000, both D-galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific; lectin III, mol. wt. 50000, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific). All three lectins react with human erythrocytes without specificity for the A, B, and O blood groups. In contrast with abrin and ricin the mistletoe lectins cannot be divided into "toxins" and "haemagglutinins".
Project description:Aqueous Viscum album L. extracts are widely used in complementary cancer medicine. Hydrophobic triterpene acids also possess anti-cancer properties, but due to their low solubility they do not occur in significant amounts in aqueous extracts. Using cyclodextrins we solubilised mistletoe triterpenes (mainly oleanolic acid) and investigated the effect of a mistletoe whole plant extract on human acute myeloid leukaemia cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Single Viscum album L. extracts containing only solubilised triterpene acids (TT) or lectins (viscum) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and ex vivo. The combination of viscum and TT extracts (viscumTT) enhanced the induction of apoptosis synergistically. The experiments demonstrated that all three extracts are able to induce apoptosis via caspase-8 and -9 dependent pathways with down-regulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis and Bcl-2 families of proteins. Finally, the acute myeloid leukaemia mouse model experiment confirmed the therapeutic effectiveness of viscumTT-treatment resulting in significant tumour weight reduction, comparable to the effect in cytarabine-treated mice. These results suggest that the combination viscumTT may have a potential therapeutic value for the treatment AML.