Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmnue bleeding disorder characterized by low platelet count. To identify susceptibility loci for disease progression of ITP, we performed this genome-wide association study using DNA pools of 200 ITP cases and 200 controsl in Han Chinese. Performing GWAS on pools of DNA samples is an effective strategy to reduce the costs of studies and pooling DNA has been shown to be an efficient method to select candidate susceptibility loci for follow-up by individual genotyping. Overall design: Illumina HumanOmniZhongHua-8 v1.0 BeadChip array were performed for DNA pools, which were constructed by pooling 50ng DNA from each participant. Two independent pools were created: case group was 200 sporadic ITP in Han Chinese, control group was 200 healthy subjects which age-, sex, race-matched with cases. Equimolar amounts of each DNA sample were then added to either the case or control pool. Two chips (each pool was replicated in triplicate) were finished according to the manufacturer's instruction.
Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired bleeding disease due to immune-mediated destruction of antilogous platelets and ineffective thrombopoiesis. Although the etiology of ITP remains unknown, genetic variants are thought to predispose individuals to the disease. Several candidate gene analyses have identified several loci that increased ITP susceptibility, but no systematic genetic analysis on a genome-wide scope. To extend the genetic evidence and to identify novel candidates of ITP, we performed a pooling genome-wide association study (GWAS) by IlluminaHumanOmniZhongHua-8 combining pathway analysis in 200 ITP cases and 200 controls from Chinese Han population (CHP). The results revealed that 4 novel loci (rs117503120, rs5998634, rs4483616, and rs16866133) were strongly associated with ITP (P < 1.0 × 10-7). Expect for rs4483616, other three loci were validated by the TaqMan probe genotyping assay (P < 0.05) in another cohort including 250 ITP cases and 250 controls. And rs5998634 T allele was more sensitive to glucocorticoids for ITP patients (? 2 = 7.30, P < 0.05). Moreover, we identified three overrepresented signaling pathways including the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, and the JAK-STAT pathway, which involved in the etiology of ITP. In conclusion, our results revealed four novel loci and three pathways related to ITP and provided new clues to explore the pathogenesis of ITP.
Project description:Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P?<?3.65?×?10(-5)). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P???0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity.
Project description:Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in autoimmune disease by inducing interferon-? secretion. Considering the abnormal serum concentration of IL-18 in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients and the regulated effect of IL-18 gene polymorphisms on its production, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between the IL-18 promoter polymorphisms (-137 G/C and -607 C/A sites) and genetic susceptibility to ITP in a Chinese Han population. A total of 181 ITP patients and 163 healthy controls were included in this study; IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. No significant differences in genotype (-607: ?(2)=0.307, p=0.858; -137: ?(2)=0.378, p=0.828) and allele frequencies (-607: ?(2)=0.004, p=0.949; -137: ?(2)=0.307, p=0.858) were found between total ITP patients and normal controls. We further analyzed the association of IL-18 polymorphisms with clinical parameters of ITP patients, including first onset age and clinical therapy response to glucocorticoids, and no difference was revealed. In conclusion, IL-18 promoter polymorphisms may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to ITP in a Chinese Han population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving European populations have successfully identified risk genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the effects conferred by these variants in Han Chinese population have not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of 24 risk genetic variants with reported associations from European GWAS in 3,040 Han Chinese subjects in Taiwan (including 1,520 T2DM cases and 1,520 controls). The discriminative power of the prediction models with and without genotype scores was compared. We further meta-analyzed the association of these variants with T2DM by pooling all candidate-gene association studies conducted in Han Chinese. RESULTS: Five risk variants in IGF2BP2 (rs4402960, rs1470579), CDKAL1 (rs10946398), SLC30A8 (rs13266634), and HHEX (rs1111875) genes were nominally associated with T2DM in our samples. The odds ratio was 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.81-2.73, P<0.0001) for subjects with the highest genetic score quartile (score>34) as compared with subjects with the lowest quartile (score<29). The incoporation of genotype score into the predictive model increased the C-statistics from 0.627 to 0.657 (P<0.0001). These estimates are very close to those observed in European populations. Gene-environment interaction analysis showed a significant interaction between rs13266634 in SLC30A8 gene and age on T2DM risk (P<0.0001). Further meta-analysis pooling 20 studies in Han Chinese confirmed the association of 10 genetic variants in IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, JAZF1, SCL30A8, HHEX, TCF7L2, EXT2, and FTO genes with T2DM. The effect sizes conferred by these risk variants in Han Chinese were similar to those observed in Europeans but the allele frequencies differ substantially between two populations. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the association of 10 variants identified by European GWAS with T2DM in Han Chinese population. The incorporation of genotype scores into the prediction model led to a small but significant improvement in T2DM prediction.
Project description:Since 2006, genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia have led to the identification of numerous novel risk loci for this disease. However, there remains a geographical imbalance in genome-wide association studies, which to date have primarily focused on Western populations. During the last 6 years, genome-wide association studies in Han Chinese populations have identified both the sharing of susceptible loci across ethnicities and genes unique to Han Chinese populations. Here, we review recent progress in genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia in Han Chinese populations. Researchers have identified and replicated the sharing of susceptible genes, such as within the major histocompatibility complex, microRNA 137 (MIR137), zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A), vaccinia related kinase 2 (VRK2), and arsenite methyltransferase (AS3MT), across both European and East Asian populations. Several copy number variations identified in European populations have also been validated in the Han Chinese, including duplications at 16p11.2, 15q11.2-13.1, 7q11.23, and VIPR2 and deletions at 22q11.2, 1q21.1-q21.2, and NRXN1. However, these studies have identified some potential confounding factors, such as genetic heterogeneity and the effects of natural selection on tetraspanin 18 (TSPAN18) or zinc finger protein 323 (ZNF323), which may explain the population differences in genome-wide association studies. In the future, genome-wide association studies in Han Chinese populations should include meta-analyzes or mega-analyses with enlarged sample sizes across populations, deep sequencing, precision medicine treatment, and functional exploration of the risk genes for schizophrenia.
Project description:We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease comprising 1,515 cases and 5,019 controls followed by replication studies in 15,460 cases and 11,472 controls, all of Chinese Han ancestry. We identify four new loci for coronary artery disease that reached the threshold of genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). These loci mapped in or near TTC32-WDR35, GUCY1A3, C6orf10-BTNL2 and ATP2B1. We also replicated four loci previously identified in European populations (in or near PHACTR1, TCF21, CDKN2A-CDKN2B and C12orf51). These findings provide new insights into pathways contributing to the susceptibility for coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: At least twenty genes/loci were shown to be associated with type 2diabetes in European original populations. Five of these genes were shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Chinese populations. The purpose of this study was to replicate the association of genetic vairants in the eight diabetes-related genes/loci with type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese cohort from western part of China. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the eight genes/loci including TCF7L2, HHEX, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, PPARG, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, and CDKN2A/CDKN2B were genotyped in 1,529 cases and 1,439 controls in a Han Chinese population using the ABI SNaPshot method. The meta-analysis of the association between rs7903146 in TCF7L2 gene and T2D in the Han Chinese was performed. RESULTS: Among the eight genes/loci examined, we found that four were significantly associated with T2D. Although previous studies showed that the association between the SNP rs7903146 in the TCF7L2 gene and T2D was controversial within the Han Chinese population, we have confirmed the significant association between the SNP rs7903146 in the TCF7L2 gene and T2D in both this study and the meta-analysis in the population. In addition, we also confirmed that three SNPs (rs1111875, rs7923837 and rs5015480) in HHEX , one SNP (rs10946398) in CDKAL1, and three SNPs (rs13266634, rs3802177 and rs11558471) in SLC30A8 were significantly associated with T2D in the population being studied. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the variants in TCF7L2, CDKAL1, HHEX, and SLC30A8 genes are associated with T2D in a Han Chinese population.
Project description:There is a paucity of genome-wide association study on Han Chinese gout patients. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis on two Taiwanese cohorts consisting of 758 gout cases and 14166 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. All the participants were recruited from the Taiwan Biobank. For pathway analysis, we applied ICSNPathway (Identify candidate Causal SNPs and Pathways) analysis, and to investigate whether expression-associated genetic variants contribute to gout susceptibility, we systematically integrated lymphoblastoid expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and genome-wide association data of gout using Sherlock, a Bayesian statistical frame-work. In the meta-analysis, we found 4 SNPs that reached genome-wide statistical significance (P?<?5.0?×?10-8). These SNPs are in or close to ABCG2, PKD2 and NUDT9 gene on chromosome 4. ICSNPathway analysis identified rs2231142 as the candidate causal SNP, and ABCG2 as the candidate gene. Sherlcok analysis identified three genes, which were significantly associated with the risk of gout (PKD2, NUTD9, and NAP1L5). To conclude, we reported novel susceptible loci for gout that has not been previously addressed in the literature.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.