Project description:Whether sex determination of marine organisms can be altered by ocean acidification and warming during this century remains a significant, unanswered question. Here, we show that exposure of the protandric hermaphrodite oyster, Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification, but not warming, alters sex determination resulting in changes in sex ratios. After just one reproductive cycle there were 16% more females than males. The rate of gametogenesis, gonad area, fecundity, shell length, extracellular pH and survival decreased in response to ocean acidification. Warming as a sole stressor slightly increased the rate of gametogenesis, gonad area and fecundity, but this increase was masked by the impact of ocean acidification at a level predicted for this century. Alterations to sex determination, sex ratios and reproductive capacity will have flow on effects to reduce larval supply and population size of oysters and potentially other marine organisms.
Project description:Mortalities of bivalve larvae and spat linked with Vibrio spp. infection have been described in hatcheries since 1959, causing potential development of resistant bacteria. A reliable and sustainable solution to this problem is yet to be developed. Potential treatment of bacterial infection with bacteriophages is gaining interest in aquaculture as a more sustainable option for managing Vibrio spp. infection. This study assessed the effectiveness of bacteriophages (?-5, ?-6, and ?-7) against pathogenic Vibrio isolates (USC-26004 and USC-26005). These phage isolates were found to belong to the Myoviridae viral family. A total of 212 ORFs of ?-5 were identified and annotated. The genome of this phage contained putative thymidine kinase and lysin enzyme. During infections with phages, the OD values of the isolates USC-26005 and USC-26004 remained stable at a much lower reading compared to the control after 9 h of incubation. Mortality rate of oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) larvae was 28.2 ± 3.5% in the bacteriophage treatment group, compared to 77.9 ± 9.1% in the bacterial treatment group after 24 h incubation. Findings of this study indicate that lytic phages might be utilized as potential bio-control agents of luminescent bacterial disease in oyster hatcheries.
Project description:Ostreid oysters (the 'true oysters') represent a large and commercially important family of bivalve molluscs. Several species, such as the Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas), the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), the European oyster (Ostrea edulis) and the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata), are currently farmed at a large scale. However a number of other species may also be suitable for commercial-scale aquaculture. One such species is the 'black-lip oyster', a large Saccostrea species of uncertain taxonomic affinity found in northern Australia. Here, phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene places this oyster within a clade identified in a previous study of Japanese Saccostrea species, 'Saccostrea lineage J'. To facilitate comparisons between this oyster and the better-studied S. glomerata, de novo transcriptomes were generated from larval stages and adult tissues of both species. Patterns of orthology indicated an expansion of repetitive elements within Saccostrea genomes when compared to M. gigas and C. virginica, which may be reflected in increased evolutionary rates and/or genome sizes. The generation of high-quality transcriptomes for these two commercially relevant oysters provides a valuable resource for gene identification and comparison of molecular processes in these and other mollusc species.
Project description:Oysters are keystone species in estuarine ecosystems and are of substantial economic value to fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Contending with disease and environmental stress are considerable challenges to oyster culture. Here we report a draft genome of the Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, an iconic and commercially important species of edible oyster in Australia known for its enhanced resilience to harsh environmental conditions. This is the second reference genome to be reported from the family Ostreidae enabling a genus-level study of lophotrochozoan genome evolution. Our analysis of the 784-megabase S. glomerata genome shows extensive expansions of gene families associated with immunological non-self-recognition. Transcriptomic analysis revealed highly tissue-specific patterns of expression among these genes, suggesting a complex assortment of immune receptors provide this oyster with a unique capacity to recognize invading microbes. Several gene families involved in stress response are notably expanded in Saccostrea compared with other oysters, and likely key to this species' adaptations for improved survival higher in the intertidal zone. The Sydney Rock Oyster genome provides a valuable resource for future research in molluscan biology, evolution and environmental resilience. Its close relatedness to Crassostrea will further comparative studies, advancing the means for improved oyster agriculture and conservation.