Project description:We investigated estrogen-inducible green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression patterns using an estrogen receptor fused chimeric transcription activator, XVE, in the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa L.). This system has been shown to be an effective chemical-inducible gene expression system in Arabidopsis and has been applied to other plants in order to investigate gene functions or produce marker-free transgenic plants. However, limited information is available on the correlation between inducer concentration and the expression level of the gene induced in monocots. Here, we produced a transgenic rice integrated estrogen-inducible GFP expression vector, pLex:GFP, and investigated dose-response and time-course patterns of GFP induction in rice calli and seedlings for the first time. With 17-?-estradiol treatment at >5 ?M, GFP signals were detected in the entire surface of calli within 2 days of culture. Highest GFP signals were extended for 8 days with estradiol treatment at 25 ?M. In three-leaf-stage seedlings, GFP signals in the leaves of pLex:GFP-integrated transgenic lines were weaker than those in the leaves of p35S:GFP-integrated transgenic lines. However, GFP signals in the roots of pLex:GFP- and p35S:GFP-integrated transgenic lines were similar with estradiol treatment at >10 ?M. With regard to controlling appropriate gene expression, these results might provide helpful indications on estradiol treatment conditions to be used for the XVE system in rice and other monocots.
Project description:Myelocytomatosis oncogenes (MYC) transcription factors (TFs) belong to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TF family and have a special bHLH_MYC_N domain in the N-terminal region. Presently, there is no detailed and systematic analysis of MYC TFs in wheat, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, 26 TaMYC, 7 OsMYC, and 7 BdMYC TFs were identified and their features were characterized. Firstly, they contain a JAZ interaction domain (JID) and a putative transcriptional activation domain (TAD) in the bHLH_MYC_N region and a BhlH region in the C-terminal region. In some cases, the bHLH region is followed by a leucine zipper region; secondly, they display tissue-specific expression patterns: wheat MYC genes are mainly expressed in leaves, rice MYC genes are highly expressed in stems, and B. distachyon MYC genes are mainly expressed in inflorescences. In addition, three types of cis-elements, including plant development/growth-related, hormone-related, and abiotic stresses-related were identified in different MYC gene promoters. In combination with the previous studies, these results indicate that MYC TFs mainly function in growth and development, as well as in response to stresses. This study laid a foundation for the further functional elucidation of MYC genes.
Project description:The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been known as a signal molecule that is induced by various stresses and mediates plant defense responses. Rice O. sativa inductively produces variety of defensive compounds upon abiotic and biotic stress conditions, such as wounding and insect attack. The bHLH transcription factor RERJ1 has previously been identified as JA-inducible factor whose expression is also rapidly induced by wounding. We identified RERJ1-dependent and wound-inducible genes by comparison with transcriptomes of wound treated wild-type and a Tos17-rerj1 defective mutant rice. Expression profiling between rice leaves of wild-type and tos17-rerj1 mutant treated by wounding for 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h was compared using two-color method with two biological replicates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Iron (Fe) is the most limiting micronutrient element for crop production in alkaline soils. A number of transcription factors involved in regulating Fe uptake from soil and transport in plants have been identified. Analysis of transcriptome data from Oryza sativa grown under limiting Fe conditions reveals that transcript abundances of several genes encoding transcription factors are altered by Fe availability. These transcription factors are putative regulators of Fe deficiency responses. RESULTS: Transcript abundance of one nuclear located basic helix-loop-helix family transcription factor, OsIRO3, is up-regulated from 25- to 90-fold under Fe deficiency in both root and shoot respectively. The expression of OsIRO3 is specifically induced by Fe deficiency, and not by other micronutrient deficiencies. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsIRO3 were hypersensitive to Fe deficiency, indicating that the Fe deficiency response was compromised. Furthermore, the Fe concentration in shoots of transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsIRO3 was less than that in wild-type plants. Analysis of the transcript abundances of genes normally induced by Fe deficiency in OsIRO3 over-expressing plants indicated their induction was markedly suppressed. CONCLUSION: A novel Fe regulated bHLH transcription factor (OsIRO3) that plays an important role for Fe homeostasis in rice was identified. The inhibitory effect of OsIRO3 over-expression on Fe deficiency response gene expression combined with hypersensitivity of OsIRO3 over-expression lines to low Fe suggest that OsIRO3 is a negative regulator of the Fe deficiency response in rice.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The shape of grass leaves possesses great value in both agronomy and developmental biology research. Leaf rolling is one of the important traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. MYB transcription factors are one of the largest gene families and have important roles in plant development, metabolism and stress responses. However, little is known about their functions in rice. RESULTS: In this study, we report the functional characterization of a rice gene, OsMYB103L, which encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. OsMYB103L was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. Overexpression of OsMYB103L in rice resulted in a rolled leaf phenotype. Further analyses showed that expression levels of several cellulose synthase genes (CESAs) were significantly increased, as was the cellulose content in OsMYB103L overexpressing lines. Knockdown of OsMYB103L by RNA interference led to a decreased level of cellulose content and reduced mechanical strength in leaves. Meanwhile, the expression levels of several CESA genes were decreased in these knockdown lines. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that OsMYB103L may target CESA genes for regulation of cellulose synthesis and could potentially be engineered for desirable leaf shape and mechanical strength in rice.
Project description:Plants employ two distinct strategies to obtain iron (Fe) from the soil. In Strategy I but not Strategy II plants, Fe limitation invokes ethylene production which regulates Fe deficiency responses. Oryza sativa (rice) is the only graminaceous plant described that possesses a Strategy I-like system for iron uptake as well as the classic Strategy II system. Ethylene production of rice roots was significantly increased when grown under Fe-depleted conditions. Moreover, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) treatment, a precursor of ethylene, conferred tolerance to Fe deficiency in rice by increasing internal Fe availability. Gene expression analysis of rice iron-regulated bHLH transcription factor OsIRO2, nicotianamine synthases 1 and 2 (NAS1 and NAS2), yellow-stripe like transporter 15 (YSL15) and iron-regulated transporter (IRT1) indicated that ethylene caused an increase in transcript abundance of both Fe (II) and Fe (III)-phytosiderophore uptake systems. RNA interference of OsIRO2 in transgenic rice showed that ethylene acted via this transcription factor to induce the expression of OsNAS1, OsNAS2, OsYSL15, and OsIRT1. By contrast, in Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), no ethylene production or ethylene-mediated effects of Fe response could be detected. In conclusion, Fe-limiting conditions increased ethylene production and signalling in rice, which is novel in Strategy II plant species.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Subgroup IVc basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors OsbHLH058 and OsbHLH059 positively regulate major iron deficiency responses in rice in a similar but distinct manner, putatively under partial control by OsHRZs. Under low iron availability, plants transcriptionally induce the expression of genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 ubiquitin ligases negatively regulate this iron deficiency response in rice. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor OsbHLH060 interacts with OsHRZ1, and positively regulates iron deficiency-inducible genes. However, the functions of three other subgroup IVc bHLH transcription factors in rice, OsbHLH057, OsbHLH058, and OsbHLH059, have not yet been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the functions of OsbHLH058 and OsbHLH059 related to iron deficiency response. OsbHLH058 expression was repressed under iron deficiency, whereas the expression of OsbHLH057 and OsbHLH060 was moderately induced. Yeast two-hybrid analysis indicated that OsbHLH058 interacts with OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 more strongly than OsbHLH060, whereas OsbHLH059 showed no interaction. An in vitro ubiquitination assay detected no OsbHLH058 and OsbHLH060 ubiquitination by OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsbHLH058 showed tolerance for iron deficiency and higher iron concentration in seeds. These lines also showed enhanced expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron-sufficient conditions. Conversely, OsbHLH058 knockdown lines showed susceptibility to iron deficiency and reduced expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes. OsbHLH059 knockdown lines were also susceptible to iron deficiency, and formed characteristic brownish regions in iron-deficient new leaves. OsbHLH059 knockdown lines also showed reduced expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes. These results indicate that OsbHLH058 and OsbHLH059 positively regulate major iron deficiency responses in a similar but distinct manner, and that this function may be partially controlled by OsHRZs.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots. METHODS: Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectric focusing IEF/SDS-PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS-PAGE was studied. KEY RESULTS: The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies.
Project description:Purpleputtu (Oryza sativa ssp. indica cv. Purpleputtu) is a unique rice landrace from southern India that exhibits predominantly purple color. This study reports the underlying genetic complexity of the trait, associated domestication and de-domestication processes during its coevolution with present day cultivars. Along-with genome level allelic variations in the entire gene repertoire associated with the purple, red coloration of grain and other plant parts. Comparative genomic analysis using 'a panel of 108 rice lines' revealed a total of 3,200,951 variants including 67,774 unique variations in Purpleputtu (PP) genome. Multiple sequence alignment uncovered a 14 bp deletion in Rc (Red colored, a transcription factor of bHLH class) locus of PP, a key regulatory gene of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, this deletion in Rc gene is a characteristic feature of the present-day white pericarped rice cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis of Rc locus revealed a distinct clade showing proximity to the progenitor species Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara. In addition, PP genome exhibits a well conserved 4.5 Mbp region on chromosome 5 that harbors several loci associated with domestication of rice. Further, PP showed 1,387 unique when SNPs compared to 3,023 lines of rice (SNP-Seek database). The results indicate that PP genome is rich in allelic diversity and can serve as an excellent resource for rice breeding for a variety of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance, enhanced nutritional values, stress tolerance, and protection from harmful UV-B rays.