Project description:Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.
Project description:The Pacific white shrimp, with the largest production in shrimp industry, has suffered from multiple severe viral and bacterial diseases, which calls for a more reliable and environmentally friendly system to promote shrimp culture. The "Aquamimicry system", mimicking the nature of aquatic ecosystems for the well-being of aquatic animals, has effectively increased shrimp production and been adapted in many countries. However, the microbial communities in the shrimp intestine and surrounding environment that act as an essential component in Aquamimicry remain largely unknown. In this study, the microbial composition and diversity alteration in shrimp intestine, surrounding water and sediment at different culture stages were investigated by high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, obtaining 13,562 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Results showed that the microbial communities in shrimp intestine and surrounding environment were significantly distinct from each other, and 23 distinguished taxa for each habitat were further characterized. The microbial communities differed significantly at different culture stages, confirmed by a great number of OTUs dramatically altered during the culture period. A small part of these altered OTUs were shared between shrimp intestine and surrounding environment, suggesting that the microbial alteration of intestine was not consistent with that of water and sediment. Regarding the high production of Aquamimicry farm used as a case in this study, the dissimilarity between intestinal and surrounding microbiota might be considered as a potential indicator for healthy status of shrimp farming, which provided hints on the appropriate culture practices to improve shrimp production.
Project description:Although shrimp are of great economic importance, few full-length shrimp transcriptomes are available. Here, we used Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing technology to generate transcripts from the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). We obtained 322,600 full-length non-chimeric reads, from which we generated 51,367 high-quality unique full-length transcripts. We corrected errors in the SMRT sequences by comparison with Illumina-produced short reads. We successfully annotated 81.72% of all unique SMRT transcripts against the NCBI non-redundant database, 58.63% against Swiss-Prot, 45.38% against Gene Ontology, 32.57% against Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG), and 47.83% against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Across all transcripts, we identified 3,958 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 80,650 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Our study provides a rich set of full-length cDNA sequences for L. vannamei, which will greatly facilitate shrimp transcriptome research.
Project description:Aquaculture production of the Pacific white shrimp is the largest in the world for crustacean species. Crucial to the sustainable global production of this important seafood species is a fundamental understanding of the shrimp gut microbiota and its relationship to the microbial ecology of shrimp pond. This is especially true, given the recently recognized role of beneficial microbes in promoting shrimp nutrient intake and in conferring resistance against pathogens. Unfortunately, aquaculture-related microbiome studies are scarce in Southeast Asia countries despite the severe impact of early mortality syndrome outbreaks on shrimp production in the region. In this study, we employed the 16S rRNA amplicon (V3-V4 region) sequencing and amplicon sequence variants (ASV) method to investigate the microbial diversity of shrimp guts and pond water samples collected from aquaculture farms located in Malaysia and Vietnam. Substantial differences in the pond microbiota were observed between countries with the presence and absence of several taxa extending to the family level. Microbial diversity of the shrimp gut was found to be generally lower than that of the pond environments with a few ubiquitous genera representing a majority of the shrimp gut microbial diversity such as Vibrio and Photobacterium, indicating host-specific selection of microbial species. Given the high sequence conservation of the 16S rRNA gene, we assessed its veracity at distinguishing Vibrio species based on nucleotide alignment against type strain reference sequences and demonstrated the utility of ASV approach in uncovering a wider diversity of Vibrio species compared to the conventional OTU clustering approach.
Project description:Understanding the correlation between shrimp growth and their intestinal bacteria would be necessary to optimize animal's growth performance. Here, we compared the bacterial profiles along with the shrimp's gene expression responses and metabolites in the intestines between the Top and the Bottom weight groups. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were collected from the same population and rearing environments. The two weight groups, the Top-weight group with an average weight of 36.82 ± 0.41 g and the Bottom-weight group with an average weight of 17.80 ± 11.81 g, were selected. Intestines were aseptically collected and subjected to microbiota, transcriptomic and metabolomic profile analyses. The weighted-principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) based on UniFrac distances showed similar bacterial profiles between the two groups, suggesting similar relative composition of the overall bacterial community structures. This observed similarity was likely due to the fact that shrimp were from the same genetic background and reared under the same habitat and diets. On the other hand, the unweighted-distance matrix revealed that the bacterial profiles associated in intestines of the Top-weight group were clustered distinctly from those of the Bottom-weight shrimp, suggesting that some unique non-dominant bacterial genera were found associated with either group. The key bacterial members associated to the Top-weight shrimp were mostly from Firmicutes (Brevibacillus and Fusibacter) and Bacteroidetes (Spongiimonas), both of which were found in significantly higher abundance than those of the Bottom-weight shrimp. Transcriptomic profile of shrimp intestines found significant upregulation of genes mostly involved in nutrient metabolisms and energy storage in the Top-weight shrimp. In addition to significantly expressed metabolic-related genes, the Bottom-weight shrimp also showed significant upregulation of stress and immune-related genes, suggesting that these pathways might contribute to different degrees of shrimp growth performance. A non-targeted metabolome analysis from shrimp intestines revealed different metabolic responsive patterns, in which the Top-weight shrimp contained significantly higher levels of short chain fatty acids, lipids and organic compounds than the Bottom-weight shrimp. The identified metabolites included those that were known to be produced by intestinal bacteria such as butyric acid, 4-indolecarbaldehyde and L-3-phenyllactic acid as well as those produced by shrimp such as acyl-carnitines and lysophosphatidylcholine. The functions of these metabolites were related to nutrient absorption and metabolisms. Our findings provide the first report utilizing multi-omics integration approach to investigate microbiota, metabolic and transcriptomics profiles of the host shrimp and their potential roles and relationship to shrimp growth performance.
Project description:The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.