Project description:A metagenomic library of sea sediment metagenome containing 245,000 recombinant clones representing ~ 2.45 Gb of sea sediment microbial DNA was constructed. Two unique arsenic resistance clones, A7 and A12, were identified by selection on sodium arsenite containing medium. Clone A7 showed a six-fold higher resistance to arsenate [As(V)], a three-fold higher resistance to arsenite [As(III)] and significantly increased resistance to antimony [Sb(III)], while clone A12 showed increased resistance only to sodium arsenite and not to the other two metalloids. The clones harbored inserts of 8.848 Kb and 6.771 Kb, respectively. Both the clones possess A + T rich nucleotide sequence with similarity to sequences from marine psychrophilic bacteria. Sequence and transposon-mutagenesis based analysis revealed the presence of a putative arsenate reductase (ArsC), a putative arsenite efflux pump (ArsB/ACR) and a putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase (ArsH) in both the clones and also a putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ArsR) in pA7. The increased resistance of clone A7 to As(V), As(III) and Sb(III) indicates functional expression of ArsC and ArsB proteins from pA7. The absence of increased As(V) resistance in clone A12 may be due to the expression of a possible inactive ArsC, as conserved Arg60 residue in this protein was replaced by Glu60, while the absence of Sb(III) resistance may be due to the presence of an ACR3p-type arsenite pump, which is known to lack antimony transport ability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibiotic resistance developed by bacteria is a significant threat to global health. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) spread across different bacterial populations through multiple dissemination routes, including horizontal gene transfer mediated by bacteriophages. ARGs carried by bacteriophages are considered especially threatening due to their prolonged persistence in the environment, fast replication rates, and ability to infect diverse bacterial hosts. Several studies employing qPCR and viral metagenomics have shown that viral fraction and viral sequence reads in clinical and environmental samples carry many ARGs. However, only a few ARGs have been found in viral contigs assembled from metagenome reads, with most of these genes lacking effective antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Owing to the wide application of viral metagenomics, nevertheless, different classes of ARGs are being continuously found in viral metagenomes acquired from diverse environments. As such, the presence and functionality of ARGs encoded by bacteriophages remain up for debate. RESULTS:We evaluated ARGs excavated from viral contigs recovered from urban surface water viral metagenome data. In virome reads and contigs, diverse ARGs, including polymyxin resistance genes, multidrug efflux proteins, and ?-lactamases, were identified. In particular, when a lenient threshold of e value of ? 1 × e-5 and query coverage of ? 60% were employed in the Resfams database, the novel ?-lactamases blaHRV-1 and blaHRVM-1 were found. These genes had unique sequences, forming distinct clades of class A and subclass B3 ?-lactamases, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration analyses for E. coli strains harboring blaHRV-1 and blaHRVM-1 and catalytic kinetics of purified HRV-1 and HRVM-1 showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin, narrow- and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems. These genes were also found in bacterial metagenomes, indicating that they were harbored by actively infecting phages. CONCLUSION:Our results showed that viruses in the environment carry as-yet-unreported functional ARGs, albeit in small quantities. We thereby suggest that environmental bacteriophages could be reservoirs of widely variable, unknown ARGs that could be disseminated via virus-host interactions. Video abstract.
Project description:Here, we describe the metagenome and functional composition of a microbial community in a historically metal-contaminated tropical freshwater stream sediment. The sediment was collected from the Mina Stream located in the Iron Quadrangle (Brazil), one of the world's largest mining regions. Environmental DNA was extracted and was sequenced using SOLiD technology, and a total of 7.9 Gbp was produced. A taxonomic profile that was obtained by comparison to the Greengenes database revealed a complex microbial community with a dominance of Proteobacteria and Parvarcheota. Contigs were recruited by bacterial and archaeal genomes, especially Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and their presence implicated them in the process of N cycling in the Mina Stream sediment (MSS). Functional reconstruction revealed a large, diverse set of genes for ammonium assimilation and ammonification. These processes have been implicated in the maintenance of the N cycle and the health of the sediment. SEED subsystems functional annotation unveiled a high degree of diversity of metal resistance genes, suggesting that the prokaryotic community is adapted to metal contamination. Furthermore, a high metabolic diversity was detected in the MSS, suggesting that the historical arsenic contamination is no longer affecting the prokaryotic community. These results expand the current knowledge of the microbial taxonomic and functional composition of tropical metal-contaminated freshwater sediments.
Project description:The enzyme 6-phospho-?-glucosidase is an important member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). However, its catalytic mechanisms, especially the key residues determining substrate specificity and affinity, are poorly understood. A metagenome-derived gene sequence, encoding a novel 6-phospho-?-glucosidase designated Pbgl25-217, was isolated and characterized. The optimal conditions for enzymatic activity were 37°C and pH 7; Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) stabilized the activity of Pbgl25-217, whereas Ni(2+), Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) inhibited its activity. The Km and Vmax of Pbgl25-217 were 4.8 mM and 1,987.0 U mg(-1), respectively. Seven conserved residues were recognized by multiple alignments and were tested by site-directed mutagenesis for their functions in substrate recognition and catalytic reaction. The results suggest that residues S427, Lys435, and Tyr437 act as "gatekeepers" in a phosphate-binding loop and play important roles in phosphate recognition. This functional identification may provide insights into the specificity of 6-phospho-?-glycosidases in GH1 and be useful for designing further directed evolution.
Project description:The phylum Verrucomicrobia contains freshwater representatives which remain poorly studied at the genomic, taxonomic, and ecological levels. In this work we present eighteen new reconstructed verrucomicrobial genomes from two freshwater reservoirs located close to each other (Tous and Amadorio, Spain). These metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) display a remarkable taxonomic diversity inside the phylum and comprise wide ranges of estimated genome sizes (from 1.8 to 6 Mb). Among all Verrucomicrobia studied we found some of the smallest genomes of the Spartobacteria and Opitutae classes described so far. Some of the Opitutae family MAGs were small, cosmopolitan, with a general heterotrophic metabolism with preference for carbohydrates, and capable of xylan, chitin, or cellulose degradation. Besides, we assembled large copiotroph genomes, which contain a higher number of transporters, polysaccharide degrading pathways and in general more strategies for the uptake of nutrients and carbohydrate-based metabolic pathways in comparison with the representatives with the smaller genomes. The diverse genomes revealed interesting features like green-light absorbing rhodopsins and a complete set of genes involved in nitrogen fixation. The large diversity in genome sizes and physiological properties emphasize the diversity of this clade in freshwaters enlarging even further the already broad eco-physiological range of these microbes.
Project description:Reconstructing the genomes of microbial community members is key to the interpretation of shotgun metagenome samples. Genome binning programs deconvolute reads or assembled contigs of such samples into individual bins. However, assessing their quality is difficult due to the lack of evaluation software and standardized metrics. Here, we present Assessment of Metagenome BinnERs (AMBER), an evaluation package for the comparative assessment of genome reconstructions from metagenome benchmark datasets. It calculates the performance metrics and comparative visualizations used in the first benchmarking challenge of the initiative for the Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI). As an application, we show the outputs of AMBER for 11 binning programs on two CAMI benchmark datasets. AMBER is implemented in Python and available under the Apache 2.0 license on GitHub.
Project description:Beneficial microbes are all around us and it remains to be seen, whether all diseases and disorders can be prevented or treated with beneficial microbes. In this study, the presence of various beneficial bacteria were identified from the sediments of Indian major Rivers Ganga and Yamuna from nine different sites using a metagenomic approach. The metagenome sequence analysis using the Kaiju Web server revealed the presence of 69 beneficial bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis among these bacterial species revealed that they were highly diverse. Relative abundance analysis of these bacterial species is highly correlated with different pollution levels among the sampling sites. The PCA analysis revealed that Lactobacillus spp. group of beneficial bacteria are more associated with sediment sampling sites, KAN-2 and ND-3; whereas Bacillus spp. are more associated with sites, FAR-2 and ND-2. This is the first report revealing the richness of beneficial bacteria in the Indian rivers, Ganga and Yamuna. The study might be useful in isolating different important beneficial microorganisms from these river sediments, for possible industrial applications.
Project description:Crude oil-polluted sites are a global threat, raising the demand for remediation worldwide. Here, we investigated a crude oil metagenome from a former borehole in Wietze, Germany, and reconstructed 42 metagenome-assembled genomes, many of which contained genes involved in crude oil degradation with a high potential for bioremediation purposes.
Project description:Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants' feces (n?=?5, each) and mothers' feces (n?=?3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk.The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants' and mothers' feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P?<?0.05). The human milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants' and mothers' fecal metagenomes.Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human milk metagenome are warranted.
Project description:Urine culture and microscopy techniques are used to profile the bacterial species present in urinary tract infections. To gain insight into the urinary flora, we analyzed clinical laboratory features and the microbial metagenome of 121 clean-catch urine samples. 16S rDNA gene signatures were successfully obtained for 116 participants, while metagenome sequencing data was successfully generated for samples from 49 participants. Although 16S rDNA sequencing was more sensitive, metagenome sequencing allowed for a more comprehensive and unbiased representation of the microbial flora, including eukarya and viral pathogens, and of bacterial virulence factors. Urine samples positive by metagenome sequencing contained a plethora of bacterial (median 41 genera/sample), eukarya (median 2 species/sample) and viral sequences (median 3 viruses/sample). Genomic analyses suggested cases of infection with potential pathogens that are often missed during routine urine culture due to species specific growth requirements. While conventional microbiological methods are inadequate to identify a large diversity of microbial species that are present in urine, genomic approaches appear to more comprehensively and quantitatively describe the urinary microbiome.