Project description:Background: Chronic constipation, including functional constipation and constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome, is a prevalent, multifactorial gastrointestinal disorder, and its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Recently studies using 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling have demonstrated dysbiosis of gut microbiota in chronic constipation. Aims: To provide an overview of recent studies for microbiota in chronic constipation and treatments for chronic constipation using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Methods: PubMed searches were performed up to 1 August 2018 using keywords: "IBS," "IBS-C," "irritable bowel syndrome," "irritable bowel syndrome with constipation," "functional constipation," "chronic constipation" in combination with "gut microbiota," "dysbiosis," "gut microflora" for microbiota in chronic constipation, and in combination with "probiotics," "prebiotics," "synbiotics," "antibiotics," and "fecal microbiota transplantation." Results: The findings of gut microbiota in functional constipation are inconsistent, and currently no consensus exists. Although no clear consensus exists, compared with healthy subjects, IBS-C patients have a lower level of Actinobacteria, including Bifidobacteria, in their fecal samples and a higher level of Bacteroidetes in their mucosa. In most randomized controlled and parallel-group trials, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and FMT therapy for chronic constipation were effective with few side effects. However, there are many studies in a small number and the types of probiotics are different, it is difficult to evaluate the effect. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to functional constipation and constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome. Targeting treatments for the dysbiosis of constipation by probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and FMT may be a new option, especially for refractory constipation to conventional therapies.
Project description:Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate microbiome profiling.To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis.Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ?300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish between healthy controls and IBS patients in faecal samples. Overall, 165 healthy controls (normobiotic reference collection) were used to develop a dysbiosis model with a bacterial profile and Dysbiosis Index score output. The model algorithmically assesses faecal bacterial abundance and profile, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis.Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70% of treatment-naïve IBD patients and 80% of IBD patients in remission, vs. 16% of healthy individuals. Comparison of deep sequencing and the GA-map Dysbiosis Test, (Genetic Analysis AS, Oslo, Norway) illustrated good agreement in bacterial capture; the latter showing higher resolution by targeting pre-determined highly relevant bacteria.The GA-map Dysbiosis Test identifies and characterises dysbiosis in IBS and IBD patients, and provides insight into a patient's intestinal microbiota. Evaluating microbiota as a diagnostic strategy may allow monitoring of prescribed treatment regimens and improvement in new therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Short bowel syndrome (SBS) presents an increasing problem in pediatrics. SBS often results from surgical resection of necrotic bowel following necrotizing enterocolitis or treatment of anatomic gastrointestinal defects. SBS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and creates substantial burdens for patients, families, and the health system. Recent reports have demonstrated that the fecal microbiome of children with SBS is significantly different from healthy control and severe intestinal microbial imbalances is associated with poor growth. We hypothesized that children with SBS and adverse clinical features such as PN dependent, shorter bowel length and lack of ileocecal valve would demonstrate more gut dysbiosis compare with the SBS non-PN dependent. An improved understanding of SBS pathogenesis would enhance management and potentially suggest new interventions. We studied microbial communities of SBS and control non-SBS patients from the jejunum, obtained endoscopically or by ostomy aspiration, and stool. We enrolled SBS patients who did and did not require parenteral nutrition (PN), as a surrogate marker for the seriousness of their disease. We studied the microbiota using high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and statistical analyses. We found that microbial diversity was significantly greater in jejunal aspirate than in stool samples in SBS patients, unlike non-SBS patients; that SBS patients receiving enteral feeds had greater diversity, and that SBS patients on PN and enteral feeds had lower differences in diversity in jejunal vs. stool samples. We found a trend toward increased diversity in patients with an intact ileocecal valve, and found that certain taxa were more abundant in the certain sample types, and in SBS patients vs. non-SBS patients. SBS patients have lower microbial diversity, especially patients with more severe disease, patients requiring PN, and those lacking an ileocecal valve. SBS patients, particularly those with more complex characteristics, exhibit differences in their intestinal microbiota. Particular individual taxa were over- and under-represented in patients with more unfavorable disease. While diminished diversity and alterations in microbiota composition are likely consequences of SBS, future efforts aimed at increasing microbial diversity and interventions targeting specific microbiota characteristics might constitute a testable approach to ameliorate some clinical SBS clinical consequences.
Project description:Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and well-balanced milieu of anatomic and immunological barriers. The epithelial surface of the GI tract is colonized by trillions of microorganisms, known as the gut microbiota, which is considered an "organ" with distinctive endocrine and immunoregulatory functions. Dysregulation of the gut microbiota composition, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with epithelial damage and translocation of microbial products into the circulating blood. Dysbiosis, increased gut permeability and chronic inflammation play a major role on the clinical outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases, graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and HIV infection. In this review, we focus on GVHD and HIV infection, conditions sharing gut immune damage leading to dysbiosis. The degree of dysbiosis and level of epithelial gut damage predict poor clinical outcome in both conditions. Emerging interventions are therefore warranted to promote gut microbiota homeostasis and improve intestinal barrier function. Interventions such as anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics have toxicity and/or limited transitory effects, justifying innovative approaches. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one such approach where fecal microorganisms are transferred from healthy donors into the GI tract of the recipient to restore microbiota composition in patients with Clostridium difficile-induced colitis or inflammatory bowel diseases. Preliminary findings point toward a beneficial effect of FMT to improve GVHD and HIV-related outcomes through the engraftment of beneficial donor bacteria, notably those producing anti-inflammatory metabolites. Herein, we critically review the potential for FMT in alleviating dysbiosis and gut damage in patients with GVHD or HIV-infection. Understanding the underlying mechanism by which FMT restores gut function will pave the way toward novel scalable and targeted interventions.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. We established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with 2 types of IBD: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).Germ-free mice were colonized by the gut microbiota isolated from patients with CD and UC, and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis, bacterial functional gene analysis, luminal metabolome analysis, and host gene expression analysis were performed in hGB mice. Moreover, the colitogenic capacity of IBD-associated microbiota was evaluated by colonizing germ-free colitis-prone interleukin 10-deficient mice with dysbiotic patients' microbiota.Although the microbial composition seen in donor patients' microbiota was not completely reproduced in hGB mice, some dysbiotic features of the CD and UC microbiota (eg, decreased diversity, alteration of bacterial metabolic functions) were recapitulated in hGB mice, suggesting that microbial community alterations, characteristic for IBD, can be reproduced in hGB mice. In addition, colonization by the IBD-associated microbiota induced a proinflammatory gene expression profile in the gut that resembles the immunologic signatures found in CD patients. Furthermore, CD microbiota triggered more severe colitis than healthy control microbiota when colonized in germ-free interleukin 10-deficient mice.Dysbiosis potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of IBD by augmenting host proinflammatory immune responses. Transcript profiling: GSE73882.
Project description:There is a fine balance in the mutual relationship between the intestinal microbiota and its mammalian host. It is thought that disruptions in this fine balance contribute/account for the pathogenesis of many diseases. Recently, the significance of the relationship between gut microbiota and its mammalian host in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated. Emerging data has linked intestinal dysbiosis to several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and gastrointestinal malignancy. This article is intended to review the role of gut microbiota maintenance/alterations of gut microbiota as a significant factor as a significant factor discriminating between health and common diseases. Based on current available data, the role of microbial manipulation in disease management remains to be further defined and a focus for further clinical investigation.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis plays a primary role in disease manifestation or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. Here, we established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with two types of IBD - Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In order to explore the functional impact of dysbiotic microbiota in IBD patients on host immune responses, we analyzed gene expression profiles in colonic mucosa of hGB mice colonized with healty (HC), CD, and UC microbiota. Overall design: WT-GF and GB mice (HC, CD, UC) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from human microbiota reconstitution and collected colon tissue for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. WT-GF: n=2, HC-Mb GB mice: n=4, CD-Mb GB mice: n=5, UC-Mb GB mice: n=5.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis during inflammatory bowel disease involves alterations in the gut microbiota associated with inflammation of the host gut. We used a combination of shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics to analyze fecal samples from pediatric patients with Crohn's disease and found an association between disease severity, gut dysbiosis, and bacterial production of free amino acids. Nitrogen flux studies using 15N in mice showed that activity of bacterial urease, an enzyme that releases ammonia by hydrolysis of host urea, led to the transfer of murine host-derived nitrogen to the gut microbiota where it was used for amino acid synthesis. Inoculation of a conventional murine host (pretreated with antibiotics and polyethylene glycol) with commensal Escherichia coli engineered to express urease led to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, resulting in a predominance of Proteobacteria species. This was associated with a worsening of immune-mediated colitis in these animals. A potential role for altered urease expression and nitrogen flux in the development of gut dysbiosis suggests that bacterial urease may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases.