Project description:The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how metatranscriptomic analyses provide insight into the activity of cheese microbial communities for which reference genome sequences are available. In the future, such studies will be facilitated by the progress in DNA sequencing technologies and by the greater availability of the genome sequences of cheese microorganisms.
Project description:Gouda cheese, one of most popular cheeses in the Korea, has been produced from only pasteurized milk in Korean dairy farms. Recently, it has become legally possible to produce ripened cheese manufactured with raw milk in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of Gouda cheese manufactured with raw (R-GC) or pasteurized milk (P-GC) during manufacturing and ripening. Particularly, this study characterized the bacterial community structure of two cheese types, which are produced without pasteurization during ripening based on next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. During ripening, protein and fat content increased slightly, whereas moisture content decreased in both P-GC and R-GC. At the 6 wk of ripening, R-GC became softer and smoother and hence, the values of hardness and gumminess, chewiness in R-GC was lower than that of P-GC. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the bacterial genera used a starter cultures, namely Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were predominant in both P-GC and R-GC. Moreover, in R-GC, the proportion of coliform bacteria such as Escherichia, Leclercia, Raoultella, and Pseudomonas were detected initially but not during ripening. Taken together, our finding indicates the potential of manufacturing with Gouda cheese from raw milk and the benefits of next generation sequencing for microbial community composition during cheese ripening.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to determine the composition and diversity of the fungal flora at various control points in cheese ripening rooms of 10 dairy farms from six different provinces in the Republic of Korea. METHODS:Floor, wall, cheese board, room air, cheese rind and core were sampled from cheese ripening rooms of ten different dairy farms. The molds were enumerated using YM petrifilm, while isolation was done on yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar plates. Morphologically distinct isolates were identified using sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. RESULTS:The fungal counts in 8 out of 10 dairy farms were out of acceptable range, as per hazard analysis critical control point regulation. A total of 986 fungal isolates identified and assigned to the phyla Ascomycota (14 genera) and Basidiomycota (3 genera). Of these Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the most diverse and predominant. The cheese ripening rooms was overrepresented in 9 farms by Penicillium (76%), while Aspergillusin a single farm. Among 39 species, the prominent members were Penicillium commune, P. oxalicum, P. echinulatum, and Aspergillus versicolor. Most of the mold species detected on surfaces were the same found in the indoor air of cheese ripening rooms. CONCLUSION:The environment of cheese ripening rooms persuades a favourable niche for mold growth. The fungal diversity in the dairy farms were greatly influenced by several factors (exterior atmosphere, working personnel etc.,) and their proportion varied from one to another. Proper management of hygienic and production practices and air filtration system would be effective to eradicate contamination in cheese processing industries.
Project description:Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a large extend, also at the late time points of cheese ripening.
Project description:The dynamics of bacteria community of "Bola de Ocosingo" cheese, a Mexican artisanal raw milk cheese was investigated by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing). Dairy samples (raw milk, curd, cheese at 50 and 110 days of ripening) were collected at dry (March-June) and rainy season (August-November) from three producers located in Chiapas, Mexico. In general, raw milk contained high bacterial diversity which was reduced throughout cheese manufacture. However, in two productions an important increase during cheese ripening was observed probably due to cross-contamination. Species such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii and L. plantarum from which potential probiotic strains may be obtained, predominated during processing, varying its prevalence from one producer to another. Furthermore, low proportions of Escherichia coli/Shigella flexnerii were detected in almost all processes, however, could not be recovered by traditional methodology, indicating presence of non-cultivable cells. This work provides insights into bacteria communities of Bola de Ocosingo cheese for starter culture development, many of which are reported to provide health related benefits, and the usefulness of high-throughput sequencing to evidence cross-contamination during processing.
Project description:In this study, a young Cheddar curd was used to produce two types of surface-ripened cheese, using two commercial smear-culture mixes of yeasts and bacteria. Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing was used to screen the microbial population within the smear-culture mixes and on the cheese surface, with comparisons of microorganisms at both the species and the strain level. The use of two smear mixes resulted in the development of distinct microbiotas on the surfaces of the two test cheeses. In one case, most of the species inoculated on the cheese established themselves successfully on the surface during ripening, while in the other, some of the species inoculated were not detected during ripening and the most dominant bacterial species, Glutamicibacter arilaitensis, was not a constituent of the culture mix. Generally, yeast species, such as Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum, were dominant during the first stage of ripening but were overtaken by bacterial species, such as Brevibacterium linens and G. arilaitensis, in the later stages. Using correlation analysis, it was possible to associate individual microorganisms with volatile compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the cheese surface. Specifically, D. hansenii correlated with the production of alcohols and carboxylic acids, G. arilaitensis with alcohols, carboxylic acids and ketones, and B. linens and G. candidum with sulfur compounds. In addition, metagenomic sequencing was used to analyze the metabolic potential of the microbial populations on the surfaces of the test cheeses, revealing a high relative abundance of metagenomic clusters associated with the modification of color, variation of pH, and flavor development. IMPORTANCE Fermented foods, in particular, surface-ripened cheese, represent a model to explain the metabolic interactions which regulate microbial succession in complex environments. This study explains the role of individual species in a heterogeneous microbial environment, i.e., the exterior of surface-ripened cheese. Through whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing, it was possible to investigate the metabolic potential of the resident microorganisms and show how variations in the microbial populations influence important aspects of cheese ripening, especially flavor development. Overall, in addition to providing fundamental insights, this research has considerable industrial relevance relating to the production of fermented food with specific qualities.
Project description:Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) labeling of cheeses has been established by the European Union (EU) as a quality policy that assures the authenticity of a cheese produced in a specific region by applying traditional production methods. However, currently used scientific methods for differentiating and establishing PDO are limited in terms of time, cost, accuracy and their ability to identify through quantifiable methods PDO fraud. Cheese microbiome is a dynamic community that progressively changes throughout ripening, contributing via its metabolism to unique qualitative and sensorial characteristics that differentiate each cheese. High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) methodologies have enabled the more precise identification of the microbial communities developed in fermented cheeses, characterization of their population dynamics during the cheese ripening process, as well as their contribution to the development of specific organoleptic and physio-chemical characteristics. Therefore, their application may provide an additional tool to identify the key microbial species that contribute to PDO cheeses unique sensorial characteristics and to assist to define their typicityin order to distinguish them from various fraudulent products. Additionally, they may assist the cheese-makers to better evaluate the quality, as well as the safety of their products. In this structured literature review indications are provided on the potential for defining PDO enabling differentiating factors based on distinguishable microbial communities shaped throughout the ripening procedures associated to cheese sensorial characteristics, as revealed through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies. Conclusively, HTS applications, even though still underexploited, have the potential to demonstrate how the cheese microbiome can affect the ripening process and sensorial characteristics formation via the catabolism of the available nutrients and interplay with other compounds of the matrix and/or production of microbial origin metabolites and thus their further quality enhancement.
Project description:The complex smear microbiota colonizing the surface of red-smear cheese fundamentally impacts the ripening process, appearance and shelf life of cheese. To decipher the prokaryotic composition of the cheese smear microbiome, the surface of a semi-hard surface ripened cheese was studied post-ripening by culture-based and culture-independent molecular approaches. The aim was to detect potential bacterial alterations in the composition of the cheese smear microbiota resulting from cheese storage in vacuum film-prepackaging, which is often accompanied by the development of a surface smear defect. Next-generation sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed an unexpected high diversity of a total of 132 different genera from the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the cheese surface. Beside typical smear organisms, our study revealed the presence of several microorganisms so far not associated with cheese, but related to milk, farm and cheese dairy environments. A 16S ribosomal RNA based analysis from total RNA identified the major metabolically active populations in the cheese surface smear as Actinobacteria of the genera Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Agrococcus. Comparison of data on a higher phylogenetic level revealed distinct differences in the composition of the cheese smear microbiome from the different samples. While the proportions of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were increased in the smear of prepacked samples and in particular in defective smear, staphylococci showed an opposite trend and turned out to be strongly decreased in defective smear. In conclusion, next-generation sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA from total RNA extracts provided a much deeper insight into the bacterial composition of the cheese smear microbiota. The observed shifts in the microbial composition of samples from defect surface smear suggest that certain members of the Proteobacteria contribute to the observed negative organoleptic properties of the surface smear of cheese after prepacking in plastic foil.
Project description:Cheese ripening involves lactose metabolism, lipolysis and proteolysis, which are affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes due to ripening (90 days) of goat milk cheese through bacteriological and physicochemical analysis in order to verify if, at the end of ripening period, this cheese could be considered "lactose-free". Three batches of the goat milk cheese were manufactured and ripened at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity for 90 days. Titratable acidity increased by about 59 °D due to carbohydrate degradation and organic acid production. However, pH (5.31-5.25) remained constant. Lactococcus was the dominant cheese microbiota, acting in the fermentation of lactose (1.17-0.06 mg/g) and lactic acid production (5.49-s10.01 mg/g). Thus, ripening time was decisive for bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics.
Project description:Lactobacillus paracasei EG9 is a strain isolated from well-ripened cheese and accelerates free amino acid production during cheese ripening. Its complete genome sequence was determined using the PacBio RS II platform, revealing a single circular chromosome of 2,927,257 bp, a G+C content of 46.59%, and three plasmids.