Project description:To identify DOT1L targets, associated signaling pathways and networks in chondrocytes, we used genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis in human articular chondrocytes of 5 different donors (without known or documented joint disease) treated with EPZ-5676 or vehicle for 4 days. It is known that DOT1L inhibitors require longer time of treatment in order to show effect and influence the expression of MLL target genes in leukemia cells, but we opted for this relatively short inhibition time to be able to identify early changes induced by DOT1L inhibition. Human articular chondrocytes were obtained from 5 non-OA hip fracture patients. The cells were treated with 3 Î¼M EPZ-5676 or vehicle (DMSO) for 4 days.
Project description:To identify DOT1L targets, associated signaling pathways and networks in chondrocytes, we used genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis in human articular chondrocytes of 5 different donors (without known or documented joint disease) treated with EPZ-5676 or vehicle for 4 days. It is known that DOT1L inhibitors require longer time of treatment in order to show effect and influence the expression of MLL target genes in leukemia cells, but we opted for this relatively short inhibition time to be able to identify early changes induced by DOT1L inhibition. Human articular chondrocytes were obtained from 5 non-OA hip fracture patients. The cells were treated with 3 μM EPZ-5676 or vehicle (DMSO) for 4 days.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To date, exhaustive gene expression analyses of chondrocytes in hip osteoarthritis (OA) have yielded specific gene expression patterns. No study has reported on the exhaustive transcriptome of secondary hip OA based on acetabular dysplasia in a Japanese population, while previous reports have focused on primary or idiopathic hip OA in Caucasian populations. This study aims to search for specific gene expression patterns of secondary hip OA chondrocytes by transcriptome analysis.<h4>Design</h4>Human articular cartilage was obtained from femoral heads following hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (N = 8; non-OA) and total hip arthroplasty for secondary hip OA (N = 12). Total RNA was extracted from the articular cartilage and submitted for microarray analysis. The obtained data were used to perform gene expression analysis, GO enrichment analysis and pathway analysis and were compared with data from primary hip OA in Caucasian populations in the literature.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 888 upregulated (fold change: FC ? 2) and 732 downregulated (FC ? 0.5) genes in hip OA versus non-OA chondrocytes, respectively. Only 10% of upregulated genes were common between the secondary and primary OA. The newly found genes prominently overexpressed in the secondary hip OA chondrocytes were DPT, IGFBP7, and KLF2. Pathway analysis revealed extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction as an OA-related pathway, which was similar to previous reports in primary hip OA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first study to report the genome-wide transcriptome of secondary hip OA chondrocytes and demonstrates new potential OA-related genes. Gene expression patterns were different between secondary and primary hip OA, although the results of pathway and functional analysis were similar.
Project description:Hip osteoarthritis (HOA) is one of the most disabling and common joint disorders with a large genetic component that is, however, still ill-defined. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in osteoarthritis (OA) and specifically in HOA have yielded only few loci, which is partly explained by heterogeneity in the OA definition. Therefore, we here focused on radiographically measured joint-space width (JSW), a proxy for cartilage thickness and an important underlying intermediate trait for HOA. In a GWAS of 6,523 individuals on hip-JSW, we identified the G allele of rs12982744 on chromosome 19p13.3 to be associated with a 5% larger JSW (P = 4.8 × 10(-10)). The association was replicated in 4,442 individuals from three United Kingdom cohorts with an overall meta-analysis P value of 1.1 × 10(-11). The SNP was also strongly associated with a 12% reduced risk for HOA (P = 1 × 10(-4)). The SNP is located in the DOT1L gene, which is an evolutionarily conserved histone methyltransferase, recently identified as a potentially dedicated enzyme for Wnt target-gene activation in leukemia. Immunohistochemical staining of the DOT1L protein in mouse limbs supports a role for DOT1L in chondrogenic differentiation and adult articular cartilage. DOT1L is also expressed in OA articular chondrocytes. Silencing of Dot1l inhibited chondrogenesis in vitro. Dot1l knockdown reduces proteoglycan and collagen content, and mineralization during chondrogenesis. In the ATDC5 chondrogenesis model system, DOT1L interacts with TCF and Wnt signaling. These data are a further step to better understand the role of Wnt-signaling during chondrogenesis and cartilage homeostasis. DOT1L may represent a therapeutic target for OA.
Project description:Histone methyltransferase EZH2 is upregulated during osteoarthritis (OA), which is the most widespread rheumatic disease worldwide, and a leading cause of disability. This study aimed to assess the impact of EZH2 inhibition on cartilage degradation, inflammation and functional disability. In vitro, gain and loss of EZH2 function were performed in human articular OA chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1?. In vivo, the effects of EZH2 inhibition were investigated on medial meniscectomy (MMX) OA mouse model. The tissue alterations were assayed by histology and the functional disabilities of the mice by actimetry and running wheel. In vitro, EZH2 overexpression exacerbated the action of IL-1? in chondrocytes increasing the expression of genes involved in inflammation, pain (NO, PGE2, IL6, NGF) and catabolism (MMPs), whereas EZH2 inhibition by a pharmacological inhibitor, EPZ-6438, reduced IL-1? effects. Ex vivo, EZH2 inhibition decreased IL-1?-induced degradation of cartilage. In vivo, intra-articular injections of the EZH2 inhibitor reduced cartilage degradation and improved motor functions of OA mice. This study demonstrates that the pharmacological inhibition of the histone methyl-transferase EZH2 slows the progression of osteoarthritis and improves motor functions in an experimental OA model, suggesting that EZH2 could be an effective target for the treatment of OA by reducing catabolism, inflammation and pain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of chondrocytes from knee and hip cartilage obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and hip cartilage obtained from patients with femoral neck fracture, providing the first comparison of DNA methylation between OA and non-OA hip cartilage, and between OA hip and OA knee cartilage. METHODS:The study was performed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, which allows the annotation of ∼480,000 CpG sites. Genome-wide methylation was assessed in chondrocyte DNA extracted from 23 hip OA patients, 73 knee OA patients, and 21 healthy hip control patients with femoral neck fracture. RESULTS:Analysis revealed that chondrocytes from the hip cartilage of OA patients and healthy controls have unique methylation profiles, with 5,322 differentially methylated loci (DMLs) identified between the 2 groups. In addition, a comparison between hip and knee OA chondrocytes revealed 5,547 DMLs between the 2 groups, including DMLs in several genes known to be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Hip OA samples were found to cluster into 2 groups. A total of 15,239 DMLs were identified between the 2 clusters, with an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation and immunity. Similarly, we confirmed a previous report of knee OA samples that also clustered into 2 groups. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated that global DNA methylation using a high-density array can be a powerful tool in the characterization of OA at the molecular level. Identification of pathways enriched in DMLs between OA and OA-free cartilage highlight potential etiologic mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and/or progression of the disease and that could be therapeutically targeted.
Project description:Objectives:To identify molecular differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and articular cartilage tissue from OA patients. Methods:We investigated genes and pathways by combining genome-wide DNA methylation, RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics in isolated primary chondrocytes from the cartilaginous layer of osteophytes and matched areas of low- and high-grade articular cartilage across nine patients with OA undergoing hip replacement surgery. Results:Chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage showed widespread differences to low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes. These differences were similar to, but more pronounced than, differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and high-grade articular cartilage, and more pronounced than differences between high- and low-grade articular cartilage. We identified 56 genes with significant differences between osteophytic chondrocytes and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes on all three omics levels. Several of these genes have known roles in OA, including ALDH1A2 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, which have functional genetic variants associated with OA from genome-wide association studies. An integrative gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that differences between osteophytic and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes are associated with extracellular matrix organization, skeletal system development, platelet aggregation and regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. Conclusion:We present a first comprehensive view of the molecular landscape of chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage as compared with articular cartilage chondrocytes from the same joints in OA. We found robust changes at genes relevant to chondrocyte function, providing insight into biological processes involved in osteophyte development and thus OA progression.
Project description:Subjects with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) often show early-onset osteoarthritis (OA); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology are not known. We investigated whether cellular changes in chondrocytes from OA cartilage can be detected in chondrocytes from DDH cartilage before histological manifestations of degeneration. We characterized undamaged and damaged articular cartilage from 22 participants having hip replacement surgery with and without DDH (9 DDH-OA, 12 OA-only, one femoral fracture). Tissue immunostaining revealed changes in damaged OA-only cartilage that was also found in undamaged DDH-OA cartilage. Chondrocytes in situ from both groups show: (i) thicker fibers of vimentin intermediate filaments, (ii) clusters of integrin ?5?1, (iii) positive MMP13 staining and (iv) a higher percentage of cells expressing the serine protease HtrA1. Further characterization of the extracellular matrix showed strong aggrecan and collagen II immunostaining in undamaged DDH cartilage, with no evidence of augmented cell death by activation of caspase 3. These findings suggest that early events in DDH cartilage originate at the chondrocyte level and that DDH cartilage may provide a novel opportunity to study these early changes for the development of therapeutic targets for OA.
Project description:To identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), antisense RNAs, and pseudogenes, associated with the inflammatory response in human primary osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and to explore their expression and function in OA.OA cartilage was obtained from patients with hip or knee OA following joint replacement surgery. Non-OA cartilage was obtained from postmortem donors and patients with fracture of the neck of the femur. Primary OA chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion. LncRNA expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Modulation of lncRNA chondrocyte expression was achieved using LNA longRNA GapmeRs (Exiqon). Cytokine production was measured with Luminex.RNAseq identified 983 lncRNAs in primary human hip OA chondrocytes, 183 of which had not previously been identified. Following interleukin-1? (IL-1?) stimulation, we identified 125 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed. The lincRNA p50-associated cyclooxygenase 2-extragenic RNA (PACER) and 2 novel chondrocyte inflammation-associated lincRNAs (CILinc01 and CILinc02) were differentially expressed in both knee and hip OA cartilage compared to non-OA cartilage. In primary OA chondrocytes, these lincRNAs were rapidly and transiently induced in response to multiple proinflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of CILinc01 and CILinc02 expression in human chondrocytes significantly enhanced the IL-1-stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.The inflammatory response in human OA chondrocytes is associated with widespread changes in the profile of lncRNAs, including PACER, CILinc01, and CILinc02. Differential expression of CILinc01 and CIinc02 in hip and knee OA cartilage, and their role in modulating cytokine production during the chondrocyte inflammatory response, suggest that they may play an important role in mediating inflammation-driven cartilage degeneration in OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A role for the type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in various human diseases has been identified. In this study, the potential mechanism underlying the involvement of PRMT5 in the pathological process leading to osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated. METHODS:PRMT5 expression in cartilage tissues from patients with OA and control individuals was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The regulatory and functional roles of PRMT5 in the chondrocytes of patients with OA and control individuals were determined by western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effects of the PRMT5 inhibitor EPZ on interleukin-1?-induced inflammation were examined in the chondrocytes of patients with OA and in the destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) of a mouse model of OA. RESULTS:PRMT5 was specifically upregulated in the cartilage of patients with OA. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PRMT5 in human chondrocytes caused cartilage degeneration. This degeneration was induced by elevated expression levels of matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)) in chondrocytes. The activation of the MAPK and nuclear factor ?B signaling pathways was evidenced by elevated levels of p-p65, p-p38, and p-JNK. These effects were attenuated by inhibiting the expression of PRMT5. In the mouse model, EPZ inhibited PRMT5 expression, thus protecting mouse cartilage from DMM-induced OA. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that PRMT5 is a crucial regulator of OA pathogenesis, implying that EPZ has therapeutic value in the treatment of this cartilage-destroying disease.