Project description:BACKGROUND:A number of Pyricularia species are known to infect different grass species. In the case of Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), distinct populations are known to be adapted to a wide variety of grass hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. The genome sizes of Pyricularia species are typical for filamentous ascomycete fungi [~?40 Mbp for P. oryzae, and ~?45 Mbp for P. grisea]. Genome plasticity, mediated in part by deletions promoted by recombination between repetitive elements [Genome Res 26:1091-1100, 2016, Nat Rev Microbiol 10:417-430,2012] and transposable elements [Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:483-503,2017] contributes to host adaptation. Therefore, comparisons of genome structure of individual species will provide insight into the evolution of host specificity. However, except for the P. oryzae subgroup, little is known about the gene content or genome organization of other Pyricularia species, such as those infecting Pennisetum grasses. RESULTS:Here, we report the genome sequence of P. penniseti strain P1609 isolated from a Pennisetum grass (JUJUNCAO) using PacBio SMRT sequencing technology. Phylogenomic analysis of 28 Magnaporthales species and 5 non-Magnaporthales species indicated that P1609 belongs to a Pyricularia subclade, which is genetically distant from P. oryzae. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the pathogenicity-related gene repertoires had diverged between P1609 and the P. oryzae strain 70-15, including the known avirulence genes, other putative secreted proteins, as well as some other predicted Pathogen-Host Interaction (PHI) genes. Genomic sequence comparison also identified many genomic rearrangements relative to P. oryzae. CONCLUSION:Our results suggested that the genomic sequence of the P. penniseti P1609 could be a useful resource for the genetic study of the Pennisetum-infecting Pyricularia species and provide new insight into evolution of pathogen genomes during host adaptation.