Project description:Microarray expriments were performed in 5 tissues of Amur sturgeon, included liver, spleen, brain ,muscle and heart. Overall design: We designed total 615 mature miRNAs probes and 5 probes repulication in microarray experiments.
Project description:The Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, is an important aquaculture species in China with annual production of about 150 thousand tons in 2015. In this study, we investigated the regulatory proteins and pathways affecting embryonic development of Amur sturgeon, by analyzing of the differential proteomes among four embryonic developmental stages using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), combined with the analysis of effects of microelements and antioxidants on embryonic development. Seventy-four, 77, and 76 proteins were differentially expressed according to iTRAQ analysis between the fertilized egg and blastula, blastula and neurula, and neurula and heart-beat stages, respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that Gluconeogenesis, Ribosome and Proteasome were the most enriched pathways, which may promote energy formation, immune system protection and protein synthesis process in A. schrenckii. The measurement of microelements indicated that Mn, Cu and Fe were obtained from their parents or water environment in A. schrenckii, while Zn plays vital roles throughout embryonic development. The dramatically high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) across the embryonic development may be the main reason leading to a low hatching rate in A. schrenckii. This study provides the basis for further proteome analysis of embryonic development in A. schrenckii.
Project description:Background:Sturgeons (Acipenseriformes) are polyploid chondrostean fish that constitute an important model species for studying development and evolution in vertebrates. To better understand the mechanisms of reproduction regulation in sturgeon, this study combined PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) with Illumina short-read RNA-seq methods to discover full-length genes involved in early gametogenesis of the Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Results:A total of 50.04?G subread bases were generated from two SMRT cells, and herein 164,618 nonredundant full-length transcripts (unigenes) were produced with an average length of 2782?bp from gonad tissues (three testes and four ovaries) from seven 3-year-old A. schrenckii individuals. The number of ovary-specific expressed unigenes was greater than those of testis (19,716 vs. 3028), and completely different KEGG pathways were significantly enriched between the ovary-biased and testis-biased DEUs. Importantly, 60 early gametogenesis-related genes (involving 755 unigenes) were successfully identified, and exactly 50% (30/60) genes of those showed significantly differential expression in testes and ovaries. Among these, the Amh and Gsdf with testis-biased expression, and the Foxl2 and Cyp19a with ovary-biased expression strongly suggested the important regulatory roles in spermatogenesis and oogenesis of A. schrenckii, respectively. We also found the four novel Sox9 transcript variants, which increase the numbers of regulatory genes and imply function complexity in early gametogenesis. Finally, a total of 236,672 AS events (involving 36,522 unigenes) were detected, and 10,556 putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 4339 predicted transcript factors (TFs) were also respectively identified, which were all significantly associated with the early gametogenesis of A. schrenckii. Conclusions:Overall, our results provide new genetic resources of full-length transcription data and information as a genomic-level reference for sturgeon. Crucially, we explored the comprehensive genetic characteristics that differ between the testes and ovaries of A. schrenckii in the early gametogenesis stage, which could provide candidate genes and theoretical basis for further the mechanisms of reproduction regulation of sturgeon.
Project description:The hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus?×?Acipenser schrenckii) is an economically important species in China. With the increasing aquaculture of hybrid sturgeon, the bacterial diseases are a great concern of the industry. In this study, de novo sequencing was used to compare the difference in transcriptome in spleen of the infected and mock infected sturgeon with Aeromonas hydrophila. Among 187,244 unigenes obtained, 87,887 unigenes were annotated and 1,147 unigenes were associated with immune responses genes. Comparative expression analysis indicated that 2,723 differently expressed genes between the infected and mock-infected group were identified, including 1,420 up-regulated and 1,303 down-regulated genes. 283 differently expressed anti-bacterial immune related genes were scrutinized, including 168 up-regulated and 115 down-regulated genes. Ten of the differently expressed genes were further validated by qRT-PCR. In this study, toll like receptors (TLRs) pathway, NF-kappa B pathway, class A scavenger receptor pathway, phagocytosis pathway, mannose receptor pathway and complement pathway were shown to be up-regulated in Aeromonas hydrophila infected hybrid sturgeon. Additionally, 65,040 potential SSRs and 2,133,505 candidate SNPs were identified from the hybrid sturgeon spleen transcriptome. This study could provide an insight of host immune genes associated with bacterial infection in hybrid sturgeon.
Project description:Objective:Sturgeons are considered living fossils, and have a very high conservation and economic value. Studies on the molecular mechanism of sturgeon gonadal development and sex differentiation would not only aid in understanding vertebrate sex determination but also benefit sturgeon aquaculture. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been shown to function in germline or gonadal development. In this study, we performed small RNA deep sequencing and microarray hybridization to identify potential sturgeon piRNAs. Methods:Male and female sturgeon gonads were collected and used for small RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform with the validation of piRNA expression by microarray chip. The program Bowtie and k-mer scheme were performed to filter small RNA reads and discover potential sturgeon piRNAs. A known piRNA database, the coding sequence (CDS), 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) database of the A. Schrenckii transcriptome, Gene Ontology (GO) database and KEGG pathway database were searched subsequently to analyze the potential bio-function of sturgeon piRNAs. Results:A total of 875,679 putative sturgeon piRNAs were obtained, including 93 homologous to known piRNAs and hundreds showing sex-specific and sex-biased expression. Further analysis showed that they are predominant in both the ovaries and testes and those with a sex-specific expression pattern are nearly equally distribution between sexes. This may imply a relevant role in sturgeon gonadal development. KEGG pathway and GO annotation analyses indicated that they may be related to sturgeon reproductive processes. Conclusion:Our study provides the first insights into the gonadal piRNAs in a sturgeon species and should serve as a useful resource for further elucidation of the gene regulation involved in the sex differentiation of vertebrates. These results should also facilitate the technological development of early sex identification in sturgeon aquaculture.
Project description:Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P?0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.
Project description:Russian ( Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian ( A. persicus) and Siberian ( A. baerii) sturgeons are closely related 'Ponto-Caspian' species. Investigation of their population structure is an important problem, the solution of which determines measures for conservation of these species. According to previous studies, 'baerii-like' mitochondrial genotypes were found in the Caspian Sea among 35% of Russian sturgeon specimens, but were not found in Persian sturgeons. This confirms genetic isolation of the Persian sturgeon from the Russian sturgeon in the Caspian Sea. However, in order to clarify the relationships of these species it is necessary to analyze nuclear DNA markers. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (method) allows estimating interpopulation and interspecific genetic distances using nuclear DNA markers. In the present study, four samples were compared: Persian sturgeons from the South Caspian Sea, Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov, and Siberian sturgeons from the Ob' River, which are close to the latter two species, but are also clearly morphologically and genetically distinct from them. For the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, eight pairs of selective primers were used. The analysis revealed that the Siberian sturgeon has formed a separate branch from the overall Persian-Russian sturgeons cluster, which was an expected result. In addition, the results showed that the Caspian Russian sturgeon is closer to the Persian sturgeon from the Caspian Sea than to the Russian Sturgeon from the Sea of Azov. The present DNA marker data confirm that despite the genetic isolation of the Persian sturgeon from the Russian sturgeon in the Caspian Sea, the Persian sturgeon is a young species.
Project description:Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), a critically endangered Acipenseridae family member, is one of the largest anadromous, native fish in China. Numerous research programmes and protection agencies have focused on breeding and preserving this endangered species. However, available information is limited on the different stages of sex development, especially on the reproductive regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis of A. sinensis. To unravel the mechanism of gene interactions during sex differentiation and gonad development of A. sinensis, we performed transcriptome sequencing using HPG samples from male and female A. sinensis in two developmental stages. In this study, 271.19 Gb high-quality transcriptome data were obtained from 45 samples belonging to 15 individuals (six in stage I, six males and three females in stage II). These transcriptomic data will help us understand the reproductive regulation of the HPG axis in the development stages of A. sinensis and provide important reference data for genomic and genetic studies in A. sinensis and related species.
Project description:Nowadays, in sturgeon's aquaculture, there is a necessity for sex identification at early stages in order to increase the efficiency of this commercial activity. The basis for a correct identification is studying the different factors that influence the gonad development. The research has been directed towards molecular methods that have been employed with various degrees of success in identifying genes with different expression patterns between male and female sturgeons during their development stages. For the purpose of understanding the sexual development of 4-year-old stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) individuals, we have selected six genes (foxl2, cyp17a1, ar, dmrt1, sox9, and star). We analysed the gene expression of the selected genes for gonads, anal fin, liver, body kidney, and white muscle. The cyp17a1, ar, dmrt1, and sox9 genes have a significant higher expression in male gonads than in female gonads, while the data shows no significant differences in the expression of the investigated genes in the other organs. We investigate these genes to shed light on aquaculture sturgeon sexual development.