Project description:Macrophages (Mϕ) are an important component of the innate immune system; they play critical roles in the first line of defense to pathogen invasion and modulate adaptive immunity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly recognized, important level of gene expression regulation. However, their roles in the regulation of Mϕ and the immune system are still not fully understood. In this report, we provide evidence that the conserved miR-183/96/182 cluster (miR-183/96/182) modulates Mϕ function in their production of reactive nitrogen (RNS) and oxygen species (ROS) and their inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. We show that knockdown of miR-183/96/182 results in decreased production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines in response to PA or LPS treatment in Mϕ-like Raw264.7 cells. Consistently, peritoneal Mϕ from miR-183/96/182-knockout versus wild-type mice are less responsive to PA or LPS, although their basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines are increased. In addition, overexpression of miR-183/96/182 results in decreased production of nitrite and ROS in Raw264.7 cells. We also provide evidence that DAP12 and Nox2 are downstream target genes of miR-183/96/182. These data suggest that miR-183/96/182 imposes global regulation on various aspects of Mϕ function through different downstream target genes.
Project description:T helper 17 (Th17) cells are key players in autoimmune diseases. However, the roles of non-coding RNAs in Th17 cell development and function are largely unknown. We found that deletion of the endoribonuclease-encoding Dicer1 specifically in Th17 cells protected mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We found that the Dicer1-regulated microRNA (miR)-183-96-182 cluster (miR-183C) was highly expressed in Th17 cells and was induced by cytokine IL-6-STAT3 signaling. miR-183C expression enhanced pathogenic cytokine production from Th17 cells during their development and promoted autoimmunity. Mechanistically, miR-183C in Th17 cells directly repressed expression of the transcription factor Foxo1. Foxo1 negatively regulated the pathogenicity of Th17 cells in part by inhibiting expression of cytokine receptor IL-1R1. These findings indicate that the miR-183C drives Th17 pathogenicity in autoimmune diseases via inhibition of Foxo1 and present promising therapeutic targets.
Project description:Memory formation is a complex cognitive function regulated by coordinated synaptic and nuclear processes in neurons. In mammals, it is controlled by multiple molecular activators and suppressors, including the key signalling regulator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Here, we show that memory control by PP1 involves the miR-183/96/182 cluster and its selective regulation during memory formation. Inhibiting nuclear PP1 in the mouse brain, or training on an object recognition task similarly increases miR-183/96/182 expression in the hippocampus. Mimicking this increase by miR-183/96/182 overexpression enhances object memory, while knocking-down endogenous miR-183/96/182 impairs it. This effect involves the modulation of several plasticity-related genes, with HDAC9 identified as an important functional target. Further, PP1 controls miR-183/96/182 in a transcription-independent manner through the processing of their precursors. These findings provide novel evidence for a role of miRNAs in memory formation and suggest the implication of PP1 in miRNAs processing in the adult brain.
Project description:Th17 cells are key players in autoimmune diseases. However, the roles of non-coding RNAs in Th17 cells are largely unknown. Here, we show that deletion of the Dicer gene specifically in Th17 cells protects from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Th17 cells highly express the miR-183/96/182 cluster (miR-183C), in response to IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Moreover, miR-183C regulates pathogenic cytokine expression during Th17 development. Furthermore, transcription factor Foxo1 is one of functional targets of miR-183C in Th17 cells: Foxo1 negatively regulates the pathogenicity of Th17 cells and miR-183C represses Foxo1 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate one of crucial roles for miR-183C cluster in regulation of Th17 cell function in autoimmune diseases. Overall design: Control vector- or miR-96-overexpressing T cells and miR-183C+/+ or miR-183C-/- T cells were cultured under the Th17(23) condition and were harvested on day 4-5. Cell sorting was performed using a FACSAria cell sorter to obtain GFP-positive cells. Total RNA was extracted using the TRIzol reagent, enriched for polyA-containing RNAs and submitted to RNA-Seq.
Project description:Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates numerous proteins in cells and thereby impacts multiple pathways including the ?-Catenin/TCF/LEF-1 pathway. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of noncoding small RNAs of ?22 nucleotides in length. Both GSK3? and miR play myriad roles in cell functions including stem cell development, apoptosis, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that GSK3? inhibits the expression of miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 through the ?-Catenin/TCF/LEF-1 pathway. Knockout of GSK3? in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells increases expression of miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183, coinciding with increases in the protein level and nuclear translocation of ?-Catenin. In addition, overexpression of ?-Catenin enhances the expression of miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 in human gastric cancer AGS cells. GSK3? protein levels are decreased in human gastric cancer tissue compared with surrounding normal gastric tissue, coinciding with increases of ?-Catenin protein, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183 and primary miR-183-96-182 cluster (pri-miR-183). Furthermore, suppression of miR-183-96-182 cluster with miRCURY LNA miR inhibitors decreases the proliferation and migration of AGS cells. Knockdown of GSK3? with siRNA increases the proliferation of AGS cells. Mechanistically, we show that ?-Catenin/TCF/LEF-1 binds to the promoter of miR-183-96-182 cluster gene and thereby activates the transcription of the cluster. In summary, our findings identify a novel role for GSK3? in the regulation of miR-183-96-182 biogenesis through ?-Catenin/TCF/LEF-1 pathway in gastric cancer cells.
Project description:The miR-183/-96/-182 cluster is a conserved polycistronic microRNA (miRNA) cluster which is highly expressed in most breast cancers. Although there are some sporadic reports which demonstrate the importance of each miRNA in this cluster in breast cancer, the biological roles of this cluster as a whole and its regulation mechanisms in breast cancer are still unclear. We compared the expression of this cluster in different cancer types, analyzed the regulation mechanism of this cluster, identified new target genes, and examined the impact of this cluster on breast cancer cells.The miRNA level was detected by LNA-based northern blot and Real-time PCR, and was also analyzed from TCGA dataset. Bioinformatics research and luciferase assay were applied to find the promoter regions and transcription factors. To investigate the biological effects of the miR-183/-96 /-182 cluster in breast cancer, we generated miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 overexpression stable cell lines to check the overdose effects; we also used miR-Down™ antagomir for each miRNA as well as miR-183/-96 /-182 cluster sponge lentivirus to check the knockdown effects. Growth, migration, cell cycle profile and survival of these cells was then monitored by colony formation assay, MTT assay, cell wound healing assay, flow cytometry and microscopy. The target gene was validated by Real-time PCR, luciferase assay, Western blot and Phalloidin/DAPI counterstaining.The miR-183/-96/-182 cluster was highly expressed in most breast cancers, and its transcription is disordered in breast cancer. The miR-183/-96/-182 cluster was transcribed in the same pri-miRNA and its transcription was regulated by ZEB1 and HSF2. It increased breast cell growth by promoting more rapid completion of mitosis, promoted cell migration and was essential for cell survival. MiR-183 targeted the RAB21 mRNA directly in breast cancer.The miR-183/-96/-182 cluster is up-regulated in most breast cancer. It functions as an oncogene in breast cancer as it increases cell proliferation and migration.
Project description:Decreased zinc levels are a hallmark of prostate cancer tumors as zinc uniquely concentrates in healthy prostate tissue. Increased dietary zinc correlates with decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer and decreased mortality from prostate cancer. The mechanisms of prostatic zinc homeostasis are not known. Lower zinc levels in the tumor are correlated directly with decreased expression of the zinc transporter hZIP1. We report identification of a microRNA cluster that regulates multiple zinc transporters, including hZIP1. Screening in laser capture microdissected prostate cancer tumors identified miR-182 as a potential regulator of hZIP1. Regulation of hZIP1 by miR-182 via two binding sites was confirmed in primary prostate cell cultures. miR-96 and miR-183 are expressed as a cluster with miR-182 and share similar sequences. Array profiling of tissue showed that miR-183, -96, and -182 are higher in prostate cancer tissue compared with normal prostate. Overexpression of the entire miR-183-96-182 cluster suppressed five additional zinc transporters. Overexpression of miR-183, -96, and -182 individually or as a cluster diminished labile zinc pools and reduced zinc uptake, demonstrating this miR cluster as a regulator of zinc homeostasis. We observed regulation of zinc homeostasis by this cluster in prostate cells and HEK-293 cells, suggesting a universal mechanism that is not prostate-specific. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a miR cluster targeting a family of metal transport proteins. Individually or as a cluster, miR-183, -96, and -182 are overexpressed in other cancers too, implicating this miR cluster in carcinogenesis.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p21 acts as a cell cycle inhibitor and has also been shown to regulate gene expression by functioning as a transcription corepressor. Here, we identified p21-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) by sequencing small RNAs from isogenic p21(+/+) and p21(-/-) cells. Three abundant miRNA clusters, miR-200b-200a-429, miR-200c-141, and miR-183-96-182, were downregulated in p21-deficient cells. Consistent with the known function of the miR-200 family and p21 in inhibition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we observed EMT upon loss of p21 in multiple model systems. To explore a role of the miR-183-96-182 cluster in EMT, we identified its genome-wide targets and found that miR-183 and miR-96 repressed common targets, including SLUG, ZEB1, ITGB1, and KLF4. Reintroduction of miR-200, miR-183, or miR-96 in p21(-/-) cells inhibited EMT, cell migration, and invasion. Conversely, antagonizing miR-200 and miR-183-96-182 cluster miRNAs in p21(+/+) cells increased invasion and elevated the levels of VIM, ZEB1, and SLUG mRNAs. Furthermore, we found that p21 forms a complex with ZEB1 at the miR-183-96-182 cluster promoter to inhibit transcriptional repression of this cluster by ZEB1, suggesting a reciprocal feedback loop.
Project description:More sensitive and effective diagnostic markers for the detection of breast cancer are urgently needed. The microRNA-183/182/96 cluster has been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and progression in a variety of cancers, and it is a promising cancer prognostic biomarker. The goal of this study was to determine the expression levels of the miR-183/182/96 cluster in breast cancer tissues and evaluate its prognostic role in breast cancer. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of the miR-183/182/96 cluster in 41 breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues (control tissues) and also in different mammary cell lines. In situ hybridization (ISH) of the miR-183/182/96 cluster on 131 tissue microarrays (TMAs) was used to statistically analyze its prognostic role. The miR-183/182/96 cluster levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues than in control tissues. The miR-183/182/96 cluster was also upregulated in human breast cancer cell lines. An increased miR-183/182/96 cluster level was correlated with local relapse, distant metastasis and poor clinical outcomes. Our findings improve our understanding of the expression level of the miR-183/182/96 cluster in breast cancer and clarify the role of the miR-183/182/96 cluster as a novel prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.
Project description:miRNA dysregulation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including those involving the retina. Up-regulation of miR-1/133 and miR-142, and down-regulation of miR-183/96/182 has been described in the RHO-P347S mouse retina, a model for a common form of inherited blindness. High-throughput LC-MS/MS was employed to analyse the protein expression of predicted targets for these miRNAs in RHO-P347S mouse retinas; 133 potential target genes were identified. Pathway over-representation analysis suggests G-protein signaling/visual transduction, and synaptic transmission for miR-1, and transmembrane transport, cell-adhesion, signal transduction and apoptosis for miR-183/96/182 as regulated functions in retina. Validation of miRNA-target mRNA interactions for miR-1, miR-96/182 and miR-96 targeting Ctbp2, Rac1 and Slc6a9, respectively, was demonstrated in vitro. In vivo interaction of miR-183/96/182 and Rac1 mRNA in retina was confirmed using miR-CATCH. Additional miRNAs (including miR-103-3p, miR-9-5p) were both predicted to target Rac1 mRNA and enriched by Rac1-miR-CATCH. Other Rac1-miR-CATCH-enriched miRNAs (including miR-125a/b-5p, miR-378a-3p) were not predicted to target Rac1. Furthermore, levels of ~25% of the retinal Rac1 interactors were determined by LC-MS/MS; expression of Rap1gds1 and Cav1 was elevated. Our data suggest significant utilisation of miRNA-based regulation in retina. Possibly more than 30 miRNAs interact with Rac1 in retina, targeting both UTRs and coding regions.