Project description:We present here the genome sequences of Shewanella baltica strain CW2 and Shewanella morhuae strain CW7, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Salvelinus namaycush (lean lake trout) and Coregonus clupeaformis (whitefish), respectively. These genome sequences provide insights into the niche adaptation of these specific species in freshwater systems.
Project description:Here we describe five Shewanella baltica genomes recovered from the same sample, as well as 12 years apart from the same sampling station. These genomes expand the collection of previously sequenced S. baltica strains and represent a valuable resource for assessing the role of environmental settings on genome adaptation.
Project description:Niche partitioning and sequence evolution drive genomic and phenotypic divergence, which ultimately leads to bacterial diversification. This study investigated the genomic composition of two Shewanella baltica clades previously identified through multilocus sequencing typing and recovered from the redox transition zone in the central Baltic Sea. Comparative genomic analysis revealed significantly higher interclade than intraclade genomic dissimilarity and that a subset of genes present in clade A were associated with potential adaptation to respiration of sulfur compounds present in the redox transition zone. The transcriptomic divergence between two representative strains of clades A and D, OS185 and OS195, was also characterized and revealed marked regulatory differences. We found that both the transcriptional divergence of shared genes and expression of strain-specific genes led to differences in regulatory patterns between strains that correlate with environmental redox niches. For instance, under anoxic conditions of respiratory nitrate ammonification, OS185-the strain isolated from a nitrate-rich environment-upregulated nearly twice the number of shared genes upregulated by OS195-the strain isolated from an H2S-containing anoxic environment. Conversely, OS195 showed stronger induction of strain-specific genes, especially those associated with sulfur compound respiration, under thiosulfate-reducing conditions. A positive association between the level of transcriptional divergence and the level of sequence divergence for shared genes was also noted. Our results provide further support for the hypothesis that genomic changes impacting transcriptional regulation play an important role in the diversification of ecologically distinct populations.IMPORTANCE This study examined potential mechanisms through which co-occurring Shewanella baltica strains diversified to form ecologically distinct populations. At the time of isolation, the strains studied composed the major fraction of culturable nitrate-reducing communities in the Baltica Sea. Analysis of genomic content of 13 S. baltica strains from two clades representing different ecotypes demonstrated that one clade specifically possesses a number of genes that could favor successful adaptation to respire sulfur compounds in the portion of the water column from which these strains were isolated. In addition, transcriptional profiling of fully sequenced strains representative of these two clades, OS185 and OS195, under oxygen-, nitrate-, and thiosulfate-respiring conditions demonstrated that the strains exhibit relatively similar transcriptional responses during aerobic growth but more-distinct transcriptional responses under nitrate- and thiosulfate-respiring conditions. Results from this study provide insights into how genomic and gene regulatory diversification together impacted the redox specialization of the S. baltica strains.
Project description:Marine bacteria display significant versatility in adaptation to variations in the environment and stress conditions, including temperature shifts. Shewanella baltica plays a major role in denitrification and bioremediation in the marine environment, but is also identified to be responsible for spoilage of ice-stored seafood. We aimed to characterize transcriptional response of S. baltica to cold stress in order to achieve a better insight into mechanisms governing its adaptation. We exposed bacterial cells to 8 °C for 90 and 180 min, and assessed changes in the bacterial transcriptome with RNA sequencing validated with the RT-qPCR method. We found that S. baltica general response to cold stress is associated with massive downregulation of gene expression, which covered about 70% of differentially expressed genes. Enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of only few pathways, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism and the flagellar assembly process. Downregulation was observed for fatty acid degradation, amino acid metabolism and a bacterial secretion system. We found that the entire type II secretion system was transcriptionally shut down at low temperatures. We also observed transcriptional reprogramming through the induction of RpoE and repression of RpoD sigma factors to mediate the cold stress response. Our study revealed how diverse and complex the cold stress response in S. baltica is.
Project description:CGH of 46 Shewanella baltica strains using customized oligonucleotide microarrays Overall design: Genomic DNAs from a total of 46 Shewanella baltica strains were extracted, labeled with Cy5, and hybridized onto customized arrays.
Project description:In bacterial populations, subtle expressional differences may promote ecological specialization through the formation of distinct ecotypes. In a barrier-free habitat, this process most likely precedes population divergence and may predict speciation events. To examine this, we used four sequenced strains of the bacterium Shewanella baltica, OS155, OS185, OS195, and OS223, as models to assess transcriptional variation and ecotype formation within a prokaryotic population. All strains were isolated from different depths throughout a water column of the Baltic Sea, occupying different ecological niches characterized by various abiotic parameters. Although the genome sequences are nearly 100% conserved, when grown in the laboratory under standardized conditions, all strains exhibited different growth rates, suggesting significant expressional variation. Using the Ecotype Simulation algorithm, all strains were considered to be discrete ecotypes when compared to 32 other S. baltica strains isolated from the same water column, suggesting ecological divergence. Next, we employed custom microarray slides containing oligonucleotide probes representing the core genome of OS155, OS185, OS195, and OS223 to detect natural transcriptional variation among strains grown under identical conditions. Significant transcriptional variation was noticed among all four strains. Differentially expressed gene profiles seemed to coincide with the metabolic signatures of the environment at the original isolation depth. Transcriptional pattern variations such as the ones highlighted here may be used as indicators of short-term evolution emerging from the formation of bacterial ecotypes. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic studies have shown considerable transcriptional variation among individuals from the same population. It has been suggested that natural variation in eukaryotic gene expression may have significant evolutionary consequences and may explain large-scale phenotypic divergence of closely related species, such as humans and chimpanzees (M.-C. King and A. C. Wilson, Science 188:107-116, 1975, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1090005; M. F. Oleksiak, G. A. Churchill, and D. L. Crawford, Nat Genet 32:261-266, 2002, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng983). However, natural variation in gene expression is much less well understood in prokaryotic organisms. In this study, we used four sequenced strains of the marine bacterium Shewanella baltica to better understand the natural transcriptional divergence of a stratified prokaryotic population. We found substantial low-magnitude expressional variation among the four S. baltica strains cultivated under identical laboratory conditions. Collectively, our results indicate that transcriptional variation is an important factor for ecological speciation.
Project description:Shewanella putrefaciens has been considered the main spoilage bacteria of low-temperature stored marine seafood. However, psychrotropic Shewanella have been reclassified during recent years, and the purpose of the present study was to determine whether any of the new Shewanella species are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present on newly caught fish. During the warm summer months the mesophilic human pathogenic S. algae dominated the H2S-producing bacterial population. After iced storage, a shift in the Shewanella species was found, and most of the H2S-producing strains were identified as S. baltica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these two major groups. Several isolates could only be identified to the genus Shewanella level and were separated into two subgroups with low (44%) and high (47%) G+C mol%. The low G+C% group was isolated during winter months, whereas the high G+C% group was isolated on fish caught during summer and only during the first few days of iced storage. Phenotypically, these strains were different from the type strains of S. putrefaciens, S. oneidensis, S. colwelliana, and S. affinis, but the high G+C% group clustered close to S. colwelliana by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The low G+C% group may constitute a new species. S. baltica, and the low G+C% group of Shewanella spp. strains grew well in cod juice at 0 degrees C, but three high G+C Shewanella spp. were unable to grow at 0 degrees C. In conclusion, the spoilage reactions of iced Danish marine fish remain unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica.