Project description:Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best studied lactic acid bacteria in the context of probiotic effects. L. rhamnosus GG has been shown to prevent diarrhea in children and adults and has been implicated to have mitigating or preventive effects in several disorders connected to microbiota dysbiosis. The probiotic effects are largely attributed to its adhesive heterotrimeric sortase-dependent pili, encoded by the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster. Indeed, the strain-specific SpaCBA pili have been shown to contribute to adherence, biofilm formation and host signaling. In this work we set out to generate non-GMO derivatives of L. rhamnosus GG that adhere stronger to mucus compared to the wild-type strain using chemical mutagenesis. We selected 13 derivatives that showed an increased mucus-adherent phenotype. Deep shotgun resequencing of the strains enabled division of the strains into three classes, two of which revealed SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the spaA and spaC genes encoding the shaft and tip adhesive pilins, respectively. Strikingly, the other class derivatives demonstrated less clear genotype - phenotype relationships, illustrating that pili biogenesis and structure is also affected by other processes. Further characterization of the different classes of derivatives was performed by PacBio SMRT sequencing and RNAseq analysis, which resulted in the identification of molecular candidates driving pilin biosynthesis and functionality. In conclusion, we report on the generation and characterization of three classes of strongly adherent L. rhamnosus GG derivatives that show an increase in adhesion to mucus. These are of special interest as they provide a window on processes and genes driving piliation and its control in L. rhamnosus GG and offer a variety of non-GMO derivatives of this key probiotic strain that are applicable in food products.
Project description:Lactobacilli with probiotic features play an essential role in maintaining a balanced vaginal microbiota and their administration has been suggested for the treatment and prevention of vaginal dysbiosis. The present study was aimed to in vitro and in vivo investigate the probiotic potential of the Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus TOM 22.8 strain, isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of a healthy woman. For this purpose, safety and functional properties were in depth evaluated. The strain exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against vaginal pathogens; adhesion capacity to both the vaginal VK2/E6E7 and the intestinal Caco-2 cells; anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, suggesting its promising probiotic features. In addition, an in vivo pilot-study was planned. Based on both clinical and microbiological parameters, the oral or vaginal strain administration, determined a significant pathogens reduction after 10 days of administration and a maintenance of eubiosis up to 30 days after the end of the treatment. Therefore, the L. rhamnosus TOM 22.8 strain can be proposed as valuable oral and/or vaginal treatment for vaginal dysbiosis.
Project description:The human microbiota is believed to influence health. Microbiome dysbiosis may be linked to neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD). We report the ability of a probiotic bacterial strain in halting neurodegeneration phenotypes. We show that Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HA-114 is neuroprotective in C. elegans models of ALS and HD. Our results show that neuroprotection from L. rhamnosus HA-114 is unique from other L. rhamnosus strains, and resides in its fatty acid content. Neuroprotection by L. rhamnosus HA-114 requires acdh-1/ACADSB, kat-1/ACAT1 and elo-6/ELOVL3/6, which are key fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial b-oxidation genes. Our data suggest that disrupted lipid metabolism contributes to neurodegeneration and that dietary intervention with L. rhamnosus HA-114 restores lipid homeostasis and energy balance through mitochondrial b-oxidation. L. rhamnosus HA-114 is suitable for human consumption opening the possibility of modifying disease progression by dietary intervention. Overall design: N2 worms (WT Caenorhabditis elegans) were grown on OP50, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B94 or Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HA-114. Two or three samples per condition were used for this experiment. Sample were biological and technical replicates.
Project description:Differences in individual host responses have emerged as an issue regarding the health benefits of probiotics. Here, we applied ribosome engineering (RE) technology, developed in an actinomycete study, to Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). RE can effectively enhance microbial potential by using antibiotics to induce spontaneous mutations in the ribosome and/or RNA polymerase. In this study, we identified eight types of streptomycin resistance mutations in the LGG rpsL gene, which encodes ribosomal protein S12. Notably, LGG harboring the K56N mutant (LGG-MTK56N) expressed high levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) on the cell surface compared with the LGG wild type (LGG-WT). GAPDH plays a key role in colonic mucin adhesion. Indeed, LGG-MTK56N significantly increased type A human colonic mucin adhesion compared to LGG-WT in experiments using the Biacore system. The ability to adhere to the colon is an important property of probiotics; thus, these results suggest that RE is an effective breeding strategy for probiotic lactic acid bacteria.IMPORTANCE We sought to apply ribosome engineering (RE) to probiotic lactic acid bacteria and to verify RE's impact. Here, we showed that one mutant of RE Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG-MTK56N) bore a GAPDH on the cell surface; the GAPDH was exported via an ABC transporter. Compared to the wild-type parent, LGG-MTK56N adhered more strongly to human colonic mucin and exhibited a distinct cell size and shape. These findings demonstrate that RE in LGG-MTK56N yielded dramatic changes in protein synthesis, protein transport, and cell morphology and affected adherence to human colonic mucin.
Project description:The oral administration of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 differentially modulates the respiratory innate antiviral immune response triggered by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation in infant mice, improving the resistance to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. In this work, by using macrophages depletion experiments and a detailed study of their production of cytokines and antiviral factors we clearly demonstrated the key role of this immune cell population in the improvement of both viral elimination and the protection against lung tissue damage induced by the CRL1505 strain. Orally administered L. rhamnosus CRL1505 activated alveolar macrophages and enhanced their ability to produce type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-? in response to RSV infection. Moreover, an increased expression of IFNAR1, Mx2, OAS1, OAS2, RNAseL, and IFITM3 was observed in alveolar macrophages after the oral treatment with L. rhamnosus CRL1505, which was consistent with the enhanced RSV clearance. The depletion of alveolar macrophages by the time of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 administration abolished the ability of infant mice to produce increased levels of IL-10 in response to RSV infection. However, no improvement in IL-10 production was observed when primary cultures of alveolar macrophages obtained from CRL1505-treated mice were analyzed. Of note, alveolar macrophages from the CRL1505 group had an increased production of IL-6 and IL-27 suggesting that these cells may play an important role in limiting inflammation and protecting lung function during RSV infection, by increasing the maturation and activation of Treg cells and their subsequent production of IL-10. In addition, we provided evidence of the important role of CD4+ cells and IFN-? in the activation of alveolar macrophages highlighting a putative pathway through which the intestinal and respiratory mucosa are communicated under the influence of L. rhamnosus CRL1505.