Project description:Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells comparing control untreated HeLa cells with IFN-gamma-treated HeLa cells To infect host cells, many viruses use small cellular compartments, called endosomes, for entry, and the thiol/disulfide interchange in viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) is crucial for infection. By screening cysteine-reacting chemicals, we found a compound, 4,4’-dithiopyridine, which is active at acidic pH, efficiently restricts retrovirus vector infection. We thus hypothesized that some products of endosome-localized, interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) exhibit anti-viral activity by inhibiting thiol/disulfide interchange in viral Envs. Among the hundreds of ISGs, gamma-interferon (IFN)-inducible lysosomal thiolreductase (GILT) is the only molecule that resides in the endosomes/lysosomes and digests the S-S bonds of proteins under acidic conditions. We now report that GILT significantly inhibits the replication of retroviruses, including HIV-1 and MLV, by restricting both the early and late phases of their life cycles. Using the VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 model, we found that GILT digests the S-S bonds of viral Env proteins. GILT also inhibits HIV-1 viral release by digesting the S-S bond of CD63, an endosome-localized molecule reportedly involved in HIV-1 particle release. The effect of -IFN on HIV-1 is limited, although GILT induced by gamma-IFN is supposed to have anti-HIV-1 activity. We found that while gamma-IFN effectively inhibits MLV replication through GILT, the gamma-IFN signaling is remarkably inhibited by the HIV-1 Env protein, but not the MLV Env protein. These findings suggest that GILT functions as an anti-viral host factor induced by gamma-IFN, however, HIV-1 may have evolved to inhibit gamma-IFN signaling by the Env protein. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, control HeLa cells vs IFN-gamma-treated HeLa cells. Biological replicates: 1 control replicate, 1 treated replicate. Please note that sample data tables contain raw data. The raw values of beta actin and GAPDH (that are commonly used as controls) showed that expression levels of beta actin and GAPDH were elevated 1.3 and 0.8 times by gamma-IFN, respectively, suggesting the raw values of these control genes were not significantly affected by gamma-IFN. However, when the raw values are normalized by GAPDH in gamma-IFN-treated cells, beta-actin expression is activated 1.6-time by gamma-IFN. Therefore, the raw data was used for the further analysis.
Project description:Gamma interferon (IFN-?)-induced innate immune responses play important roles in the inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii infection. It has been reported that IFN-? stimulates non-acidification-dependent growth restriction of T. gondii in HeLa cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) plays a critical role in parasite restriction in IFN-?-treated HeLa cells. GABARAPL2 is recruited to membrane structures surrounding parasitophorous vacuoles (PV). Autophagy adaptors are required for the proper localization and function of GABARAPL2 in the IFN-? -induced immune response. These findings provide further understanding of a noncanonical autophagy pathway responsible for IFN-?-dependent inhibition of T. gondii growth in human HeLa cells and demonstrate the critical role of GABARAPL2 in this response.
Project description:Treatment of human HeLa and amnion U cells with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), either alone or in combination with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), reduced the steady-state level of mRNA encoding the catalytic (C) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) as measured by Northern gel-blot (RNA) analysis. In addition, IFN-gamma treatment increased the ratio of C alpha to C alpha 2 (the two splice-site variants of PKA C alpha subunit mRNA produced in HeLa cells) as measured by a polymerase chain reaction assay. IFN-gamma greatly reduced the amount of a novel splice-site variant of PKA, C alpha 2, which retains introns G and H, relative to the amount of C alpha, which lacks introns G and H. IFN-alpha treatment in combination with IFN-gamma did not further reduce the level of PKA C alpha transcripts beyond that of IFN-gamma alone, as measured by Northern blots; however, IFN-alpha in combination with IFN-gamma did cause a synergistic increase in the level of human Mx transcripts.
Project description:We describe the modulation of gene expression by IDO induction in HeLa cells. The RNA-seq transcriptome profile of IFN gamma-treated and IDO1-transduced HeLa cells was compared to that of untreated WT and GFP-transduced HeLa cells, respectively.
Project description:CD19 and CD37 proteins are highly expressed in B-cell lymphoma and have been successfully targeted with different monotherapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy. The goal of this study was to target lymphoma with novel CD37, humanized CD37, and bi-specific humanized CD37-CD19 CAR-T cells. A novel mouse monoclonal anti-human CD37 antibody (clone 2B8D12F2D4) was generated with high binding affinity for CD37 antigen (KD = 1.6 nM). The CD37 antibody specifically recognized cell surface CD37 protein in lymphoma cells and not in multiple myeloma or other types of cancer. The mouse and humanized CD37-CAR-T cells specifically killed Raji and CHO-CD37 cells and secreted IFN-gamma. In addition, we generated bi-specific humanized hCD37-CD19 CAR-T cells that specifically killed Raji cells, CHO-CD37, and Hela-CD19 cells and did not kill control CHO or Hela cells. Moreover, the hCD37-CD19 CAR-T cells secreted IFN-gamma against CD37-positive and CD19-positive target CHO-CD37, Hela-CD19 cells, respectively, but not against CD19 and CD37-negative parental cell line. The bi-specific hCD37-CD19 significantly inhibited Raji xenograft tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival in NOD scid gamma mouse (NSG) mouse model. This study demonstrates that novel humanized CD37 and humanized CD37-CD19 CAR-T cells specifically targeted either CD37 positive or CD37 and CD19-positive cells and provides a basis for future clinical studies.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.