Project description:Isolated and established in culture from the Antarctic in 1988, the nematode Panagrolaimus davidi has proven to be an ideal model for the study of adaptation to the cold. Not only is it the best-documented example of an organism surviving intracellular freezing but it is also able to undergo cryoprotective dehydration. As part of an ongoing effort to develop a molecular understanding of this remarkable organism, we have assembled both a transcriptome and a set of genomic scaffolds. We provide an overview of the transcriptome and a survey of genes involved in temperature stress. We also explore, in silico, the possibility that P. davidi will be susceptible to an environmental RNAi response, important for further functional studies.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling occurs in response to almost any change in the extracellular or intracellular milieu that affects the metabolism of the cell, organ or the entire organism. MAPK-dependent signal transduction is required for physiological metabolic adaptation, but inappropriate MAPK signalling contributes to the development of several interdependent pathological traits, collectively known as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome leads to life-threatening clinical consequences, such as type 2 diabetes. This Review provides an overview of the MAPK-signalling mechanisms that underly basic cellular metabolism, discussing their link to disease.
Project description:The purpose of this article is to place these genetic discoveries in the context of current and future therapeutic strategies for patients with RA. More specifically, this article focuses on (1) a brief overview of genetic studies, (2) human genetics as an approach to identify the Achilles heel of disease pathways, (3) humans as the model organism for functional studies of human mutations, (4) pharmacogenetic studies to gain insight into the mechanism of action of drugs, and (5) next-generation patient registries to enable large-scale genotype-phenotype studies.
Project description:Basal bodies are microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages. The core structure of the basal body is highly conserved, but there is variability in biogenesis and additional functions that are organism and cell type specific. Work carried out in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has arguably produced one of the most detailed dissections of basal body structure and biogenesis within the context of the flagellar pocket and associated organelles. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the basic basal body structure in T. brucei along with the accessory structures and show how basal body movements during the basal body duplication cycle orchestrate cell and organelle morphogenesis. With this in-depth three-dimensional knowledge, identification of many basal body genes coupled with excellent genetic tools makes it an attractive model organism to study basal body biogenesis and maintenance.
Project description:We present iRefWeb, a web interface to protein interaction data consolidated from 10 public databases: BIND, BioGRID, CORUM, DIP, IntAct, HPRD, MINT, MPact, MPPI and OPHID. iRefWeb enables users to examine aggregated interactions for a protein of interest, and presents various statistical summaries of the data across databases, such as the number of organism-specific interactions, proteins and cited publications. Through links to source databases and supporting evidence, researchers may gauge the reliability of an interaction using simple criteria, such as the detection methods, the scale of the study (high- or low-throughput) or the number of cited publications. Furthermore, iRefWeb compares the information extracted from the same publication by different databases, and offers means to follow-up possible inconsistencies. We provide an overview of the consolidated protein-protein interaction landscape and show how it can be automatically cropped to aid the generation of meaningful organism-specific interactomes. iRefWeb can be accessed at: http://wodaklab.org/iRefWeb. Database URL: http://wodaklab.org/iRefWeb/
Project description:The use of food enzymes (FE) by the industrial food industry is continuously increasing. These FE are mainly obtained by microbial fermentation, for which both wild-type (WT) and genetically modified (GM) strains are used. The FE production yield can be increased by optimizing the fermentation process, either by using genetically modified micro-organism (GMM) strains or by producing recombinant enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the different methods used to produce FE preparations and how the use of GMM can increase the production yield. Additionally, information regarding the construction of these GMM strains is provided. Thereafter, an overview of the different European regulations concerning the authorization of FE preparations on the European market and the use of GMM strains is given. Potential issues related to the authorization and control of FE preparations sold on the European market are then identified and illustrated by a case study. This process highlighted the importance for control of FE preparations and the consequent need for appropriate detection methods targeting the presence of GMM, which is used in fermentation products.