Project description:Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont, which can grow inside root-nodule cells of the agriculturally important soybean and other host plants. Our previous studies described B. diazoefficiens host-specific global expression changes occurring during legume infection at the transcript and protein level. In order to further characterize nodule metabolism, we here determine by flow injection-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis the metabolome of (i) nodules and roots from four different B. diazoefficiens host plants; (ii) soybean nodules harvested at different time points during nodule development; and (iii) soybean nodules infected by two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation, respectively. Ribose (soybean), tartaric acid (mungbean), hydroxybutanoyloxybutanoate (siratro) and catechol (cowpea) were among the metabolites found to be specifically elevated in one of the respective host plants. While the level of C4-dicarboxylic acids decreased during soybean nodule development, we observed an accumulation of trehalose-phosphate at 21 days post infection (dpi). Moreover, nodules from non-nitrogen-fixing bacteroids (nifA and nifH mutants) showed specific metabolic alterations; these were also supported by independent transcriptomics data. The alterations included signs of nitrogen limitation in both mutants, and an increased level of a phytoalexin in nodules induced by the nifA mutant, suggesting that the tissue of these nodules exhibits defense and stress reactions.
Project description:Sulfur (S)-containing molecules play an important role in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and are critical components of nitrogenase and other iron-S proteins. S deficiency inhibits symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. However, despite its importance, little is known about the sources of S that rhizobia utilize during symbiosis. We previously showed that Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110T can assimilate both inorganic and organic S and that genes involved in organic S utilization are expressed during symbiosis. Here, we show that a B. diazoefficiens USDA110T mutant with a sulfonate monooxygenase (ssuD) insertion is defective in nitrogen fixation. Microscopy analyses revealed that the ?ssuD mutant was defective in root hair infection and that ?ssuD mutant bacteroids showed degradation compared to the wild-type strain. Moreover, the ?ssuD mutant was significantly more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress than the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results show that the ability of rhizobia to utilize organic S plays an important role in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Since nodules have been reported to be an important source of reduced S used during symbiosis and nitrogen fixation, further research will be needed to determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of S assimilation by rhizobia.IMPORTANCE Rhizobia form symbiotic associations with legumes that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Sulfur-containing molecules play a crucial role in nitrogen fixation; thus, the rhizobia inside nodules require large amounts of sulfur. Rhizobia can assimilate both inorganic (sulfate) and organic (sulfonates) sources of sulfur. However, very little is known about rhizobial sulfur metabolism during symbiosis. In this report, we show that sulfonate utilization by Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both soybean and cowpea. The symbiotic defect is probably due to increased sensitivity to oxidative stress from sulfur deficiency in the mutant strain defective for sulfonate utilization. The results of this study can be extended to other rhizobium-legume symbioses, as sulfonate utilization genes are widespread in these bacteria.
Project description:Agricultural soil is the largest source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas. Soybean is an important leguminous crop worldwide. Soybean hosts symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. In soybean ecosystems, N2O emissions often increase during decomposition of the root nodules. Our previous study showed that N2O reductase can be used to mitigate N2O emission from soybean fields during nodule decomposition by inoculation with nosZ++ strains [mutants with increased N2O reductase (N2OR) activity] of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. Here, we show that N2O emission can be reduced at the field scale by inoculation with a mixed culture of indigenous nosZ+ strains of B. diazoefficiens USDA110 group isolated from Japanese agricultural fields. Our results also suggested that nodule nitrogen is the main source of N2O production during nodule decomposition. Isolating nosZ+ strains from local soybean fields would be more applicable and feasible for many soybean-producing countries than generating mutants.
Project description:Metabolomics and transcriptomics of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-induced root nodules Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont, which can grow inside root-nodule cells of the agriculturally important soybean and other host plants. Our previous studies described B. diazoefficiens host-specific global expression changes occurring during legume infection at the transcript and protein level. In order to further characterize nodule metabolism, we here determine by flow injection -time of flight mass spectrometry analysis the metabolome of i) nodules and roots from four different B. diazoefficiens host plants, ii) soybean nodules harvested at different time points during nodule development, and iii) soybean nodules infected by two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation, respectively. Ribose (soybean), tartaric acid (mungbean), hydroxybutanoyloxybutanoate (siratro) and catechol (cowpea) were among the metabolites found to be specifically elevated in one of the respective host plants. While the level of C4-dicarboxylic acids decreased during soybean nodule development, we observed an accumulation of trehalose-phosphate at 21 days post infection (dpi). Moreover, nodules from non-nitrogen-fixing bacteroids (nifA and nifH mutants) showed specific metabolic alterations; these were also supported by transcriptomics data that was generated for the two mutant strains and were helpful to separate for some examples the respective bacterial and plant contributions to the metabolic profile. The alterations included signs of nitrogen limitation in both mutants, and an increased level of a phytoalexin in nodules induced by the nifA mutant, suggesting that the tissue of these nodules exhibits defense and stress reactions. Overall design: Metabolomics by flow injection -time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of i) nodules and roots from four different B. diazoefficiens host plants, ii) soybean nodules obtained from different time points in nodule development, and iii) soybean nodules infected by two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation, respectively. Transcriptomics of nodules induced by the two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation . For comparison with the two mutant strain data, the existing wild-type nodules data (GSM210242- GSM210245) were used"
Project description:Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is cultivated widely in semiarid agricultural regions in over 90 countries around the world. This important legume can enter into symbiotic associations with a wide range of rhizobia including Bradyrhizobium and fast-growing rhizobia. In comparison with other major legumes such as soybean and common bean, only limited information is available on the symbiotic interaction of pigeon pea with rhizobia. In this study, we investigated the ability of two classical soybean symbionts-S. fredii USDA191 and B. diazoefficiens USDA110-and their type 3 secretion system (T3SS) mutants, to nodulate pigeon pea. Both S. fredii USDA191 and a T3SS mutant S. fredii RCB26 formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on pigeon pea. Inoculation of pigeon pea roots with B. diazoefficiens USDA110 and B. diazoefficiens ?136 (a T3SS mutant) resulted in the formation of Fix- and Fix+ nodules, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy of Fix- nodules initiated by B. diazoefficiens USDA110 revealed the complete absence of rhizobia within these nodules. In contrast, Fix+ nodules formed by B. diazoefficiens ?136 revealed a central region that was completely filled with rhizobia. Ultrastructural investigation revealed the presence of numerous bacteroids surrounded by peribacteroid membranes in the infected cells. Analysis of nodule proteins by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that leghemoglobin was absent in B. diazoefficiens USDA110 nodules, while it was abundantly present in B. diazoefficiens ?136 nodules. Results of competitive nodulation assays indicated that B. diazoefficiens ?136 had greater competitiveness for nodulation on pigeon pea than did the wild type strain. Our results suggest that this T3SS mutant of B. diazoefficiens, due to its greater competitiveness and ability to form Fix+ nodules, could be exploited as a potential inoculant to boost pigeon pea productivity.
Project description:Soybean plants host endosymbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium. Under oxygen-limiting conditions, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and Bradyrhizobium japonicum perform denitrification by sequentially reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrous oxide (N2O) or N2. The anaerobic reduction of NO3- to N2O was previously shown to be lower in B. japonicum than in B. diazoefficiens due to impaired periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) activity in B. japonicum. We herein demonstrated that impaired Nap activity in B. japonicum was due to low Nap protein levels, which may be related to a decline in the production of FixP and FixO proteins by the cbb3-type oxidase.
Project description:Legume-rhizobia symbiotic associations have beneficial effects on food security and nutrition, health and climate change. Hypoxia induced by flooding produces nitric oxide (NO) in nodules from soybean plants cultivated in nitrate-containing soils. As NO is a strong inhibitor of nitrogenase expression and activity, this negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean and limits crop production. In Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, denitrification is the main process involved in NO formation by soybean flooded nodules. In addition to denitrification, nitrate assimilation is another source of NO in free-living B. diazoefficiens cells and a single domain hemoglobin (Bjgb) has been shown to have a role in NO detoxification during nitrate-dependent growth. However, the involvement of Bjgb in protecting nitrogenase against NO in soybean nodules remains unclear. In this work, we have investigated the effect of inoculation of soybean plants with a bjgb mutant on biological nitrogen fixation. By analyzing the proportion of N in shoots derived from N2-fixation using the 15N isotope dilution technique, we found that plants inoculated with the bjgb mutant strain had higher tolerance to flooding than those inoculated with the parental strain. Similarly, reduction of nitrogenase activity and nifH expression by flooding was less pronounced in bjgb than in WT nodules. These beneficial effects are probably due to the reduction of NO accumulation in bjgb flooded nodules compared to the wild-type nodules. This decrease is caused by an induction of expression and activity of the denitrifying NO reductase enzyme in bjgb bacteroids. As bjgb deficiency promotes NO-tolerance, the negative effect of NO on nitrogenase is partially prevented and thus demonstrates that inoculation of soybean plants with the B. diazoefficiens bjgb mutant confers protection of symbiotic nitrogen fixation during flooding.
Project description:The adaptation of rhizobia from the free-living state in soil to the endosymbiotic state comprises several physiological changes in order to cope with the extremely low oxygen availability (microoxia) within nodules. To uncover cellular functions required for bacterial adaptation to microoxia directly at the protein level, we applied a systems biology approach on the key rhizobial model and soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 (formerly B. japonicum USDA 110). As a first step, the complete genome of B. diazoefficiens 110spc4, the model strain used in most prior functional genomics studies, was sequenced revealing a deletion of a ~202 kb fragment harboring 223 genes and several additional differences, compared to strain USDA 110. Importantly, the deletion strain showed no significantly different phenotype during symbiosis with several host plants, reinforcing the value of previous OMICS studies. We next performed shotgun proteomics and detected 2,900 and 2,826 proteins in oxically and microoxically grown cells, respectively, largely expanding our knowledge about the inventory of rhizobial proteins expressed in microoxia. A set of 62 proteins was significantly induced under microoxic conditions, including the two nitrogenase subunits NifDK, the nitrogenase reductase NifH, and several subunits of the high-affinity terminal cbb 3 oxidase (FixNOQP) required for bacterial respiration inside nodules. Integration with the previously defined microoxia-induced transcriptome uncovered a set of 639 genes or proteins uniquely expressed in microoxia. Finally, besides providing proteogenomic evidence for novelties, we also identified proteins with a regulation similar to that of FixK2: transcript levels of these protein-coding genes were significantly induced, while the corresponding protein abundance remained unchanged or was down-regulated. This suggested that, apart from fixK 2, additional B. diazoefficiens genes might be under microoxia-specific post-transcriptional control. This hypothesis was indeed confirmed for several targets (HemA, HemB, and ClpA) by immunoblot analysis.
Project description:Nodulation competition is a key factor that limits symbiotic nitrogen fixation between rhizobia and their host legumes. Soybean root exudates (SREs) are thought to act as signals that influence Bradyrhizobium ability to colonize roots and to survive in the rhizosphere, and thus they act as a key determinant of nodulation competitiveness. In order to find the competitiveness-related genes in B. diazoefficiens, the transcriptome of two SREs treated B. diazoefficiens with completely different nodulation abilities (B. diazoefficiens 4534 and B. diazoefficiens 4222) were sequenced and compared. In SREs treated strain 4534 (SREs-4534), 253 unigenes were up-regulated and 204 unigenes were down-regulated. In SREs treated strain 4534 (SREs-4222), the numbers of up- and down-regulated unigenes were 108 and 185, respectively. There were considerable differences between the SREs-4534 and SREs-4222 gene expression profiles. Some differentially expressed genes are associated with a two-component system (i.g., nodW, phyR-?<sup>EcfG</sup>), bacterial chemotaxis (i.g., cheA, unigene04832), ABC transport proteins (i.g., unigene02212), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) metabolism (i.g., nthA, nthB), and metabolic fitness (i.g., put.), which may explain the higher nodulation competitiveness of B. diazoefficiens in the rhizosphere. Our results provide a comprehensive transcriptomic resource for SREs treated B. diazoefficiens and will facilitate further studies on competitiveness-related genes in B. diazoefficiens.
Project description:When soil oxygen levels decrease, some bradyrhizobia use denitrification as an alternative form of respiration. Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens (nos+) completely denitrifies nitrate (NO3-) to dinitrogen, whereas B. japonicum (nos-) is unable to reduce nitrous oxide to dinitrogen. We found that anaerobic growth with NO3- as the electron acceptor was significantly lower in B. japonicum than in B. diazoefficiens, and this was not explained by the absence of nos in B. japonicum. Our results indicate that the reason for the limited growth of B. japonicum is weak NO3- reduction due to impaired periplasmic nitrate reductase activity, which may rely on posttranscriptional events.