Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is a colorful plant used as a cut flower or landscape ornamental. The unique foliage color of this plant includes both green and red leaves and, as a trait of interest, deserves investigation. In order to explore the pigments behind the red section of the chimeric leaves, the green and red parts of chimeric leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus were sampled and analyzed at phenotypic, cellular and molecular levels in this study.<h4>Results</h4>The CIELAB results indicated that the a* values and L* values samples had significant differences between two parts. Freehand sections showed that anthocyanin presented limited accumulation in the green leaf tissues but obviously accumulation in the epidermal cells of red tissues. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were performed by RNA-seq and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among the 508 identified metabolites, 10 kinds of anthocyanins were detected, with 6 significantly different between the two samples. The cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside content that accounts for nearly 95.6% in red samples was significantly higher than green samples. RNA-Seq analyses showed that 11 out of 40 anthocyanin-related genes were differentially expressed between the green and red samples. Transcriptome and metabolome correlations were determined by nine quadrant analyses, and 9 anthocyanin-related genes, including MYB5 and MYB82, were correlated with 7 anthocyanin-related metabolites in the third quadrant in which genes and metabolites showing consistent change. Particularly, the PCCs between these two MYB genes and cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside were above 0.95.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Phenotypic colors are closely related to the tissue structures of different leaf parts of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, and two MYB transcription factors might contribute to differences of anthocyanin accumulation in two parts of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus chimeric leaves. This study lay a foundation for further researches on functions of MYBs in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus and provides new insights to anthocyanin accumulation in different parts of chimeric leaves.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies.<h4>Results</h4>The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.
Project description:Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus.
Project description:Background:Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is an herbaceous perennial monocot cultivated as an ornamental plant for its chimeric leaves. Because of its genomic complexity, and because no genomic information is available in the public GenBank database, the complete structure of the mRNA transcript is unclear and there are limited molecular mechanism studies for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Methods:Three size fractionated full-length cDNA libraries (1-2 kb, 2-3 kb, and 3-6 kb) were constructed and subsequently sequenced in five single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cells (2 cells, 2 cells, and 1 cell, respectively). Results:In total, 19,838 transcripts were identified for alternative splicing (AS) analysis. Among them, 19,185 (96.7%) transcripts were functionally annotated. A total of 9,921 genes were identified by mapping the non-redundant isoforms to the reference genome. A total of 10,649 AS events were identified, the majority of which were intron retention events. The alternatively spliced genes had functions in the basic metabolism processes of the plant such as carbon metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. Fourteen genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were identified as having AS events. The distribution of the splicing sites and the percentage of conventional and non-canonical AS sites of the genes categorized in pathways related to the albino leaf phenotype (ko00860, ko00195, ko00196, and ko00710) varied greatly. The present results showed that there were 8,316 genes carrying at least one poly (A) site, which generated 21,873 poly (A) sites. These findings indicated that the quality of the gene structure and functional information of the obtained genome was greatly improved, which may facilitate further genetic study of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lysine succinylation, an important protein posttranslational modification (PTM), is widespread and conservative. The regulatory functions of succinylation in leaf color has been reported. The chimeric leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus are composed of normal green parts and albino white parts. However, the extent and function of lysine succinylation in chimeric leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus has yet to be investigated.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to the green (Gr) parts, the global succinylation level was increased in the white (Wh) parts of chimeric leaves according to the Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we quantitated the change in the succinylation profiles between the Wh and Gr parts of chimeric leaves using label-free LFQ intensity. In total, 855 succinylated sites in 335 proteins were identified, and 593 succinylated sites in 237 proteins were quantified. Compared to the Gr parts, 232 (61.1%) sites in 128 proteins were quantified as upregulated targets, and 148 (38.9%) sites in 70 proteins were quantified as downregulated targets in the Wh parts of chimeric leaves using a 1.5-fold threshold (P?<?0.05). These proteins with altered succinylation level were mainly involved in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, photorespiration, glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (CAC) and pyruvate metabolism.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggested that the changed succinylation level in proteins might function in the main energy metabolism pathways-photosynthesis and respiration. Succinylation might provide a significant effect in the growth of chimeric leaves and the relationship between the Wh and Gr parts of chimeric leaves. This study not only provided a basis for further characterization on the function of succinylated proteins in chimeric leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus but also provided a new insight into molecular breeding for leaf color chimera.
Project description:Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a common way to study gene regulation at the transcriptional level due to its sensibility and specificity, but it needs appropriate reference genes to normalize data. Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, with white-green chimeric leaves, is an important pantropical ornamental plant. Up to date, no reference genes have been evaluated in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. In this work, we used five common statistics tools (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt method, RefFinder) to evaluate 10 candidate reference genes. The results showed that Unigene.16454 and Unigene.16459 were the optimal reference genes for different tissues, Unigene.16454 and zinc finger ran-binding domain-containing protein 2 (ZRANB2) for chimeric leaf at different developmental stages, isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] (IDH) and triacylglycerol lipase SDP1-like (SDP) for seedlings under different hormone treatments. The comprehensive results showed IDH, pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein (PPRC), Unigene.16454, and caffeoyl-CoA O methyltransferase 5-like (CCOAOMT) are the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was the least during all experiments. Furthermore, the reliability of recommended reference gene was validated by the detection of porphobilinogen deaminase (HEMC) expression levels in chimeric leaves. Overall, this study provides appropriate reference genes under three specific experimental conditions and will be useful for future research on spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression and multiple hormone regulation pathways in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play key regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress physiology. Revealing the mechanism of lncRNA regulation in the albino portions of leaves is important for understanding the development of chimeric leaves in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. In this study, a total of 3,543 candidate lncRNAs were identified, among which 1,451 were differentially expressed between completely green (CGr) and completely white (CWh) leaves. LncRNAs tend to have shorter transcripts, lower expression levels, and greater expression specificity than protein-coding genes. Predicted lncRNA targets were functionally annotated by the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A lncRNA-mRNA interaction network was constructed, and 36 target mRNAs related to chlorophyll metabolism were predicted to interact with 86 lncRNAs. Among these, 25 significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs putatively interacted with 16 target mRNAs. Based on an expression pattern analysis of the lncRNAs and their target mRNAs, the lncRNAs targeting magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), and heme o synthase (COX10) were suggested as key regulators of chlorophyll metabolism. This study provides the first lncRNA database for A. comosus var. bracteatus and contributes greatly to understanding the mechanism of epigenetic regulation of leaf albinism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The chimeric leaves of <i>Ananas comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i> are composed of normal green parts (Grs) and albino white parts (Whs). Although the underlying mechanism of albinism in <i>A. comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i> leaves is not fully understood, it is likely associated with the chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis. In this biosynthetic process, porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) plays a crucial role by catalyzing the conversion of porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Urogen III). Therefore, its encoding gene <i>AbhemC</i> was investigated here in association with Chl biosynthesis and albinism in chimeric <i>A. comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i> leaves.<h4>Methods</h4>The Chl content, main Chl biosynthesis precursor content, and main enzyme activity were determined and compared between the Whs and Grs of <i>A. comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i> leaves. In addition, <i>AbhemC</i> was cloned and its transcriptional expression and prokaryotic protein expression were analyzed. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated silencing of <i>AbhemC</i> was produced and assessed in tobacco plants.<h4>Results</h4>The concentration of Chl a and Chl b in the Grs was significantly higher than that in the Whs, respectively. Additionally, the content of the Chl biosynthesis precursor Urogen III decreased significantly in the Whs compared with the Grs. Thus, the transition of PBG to Urogen III may be the first rate-limiting step leading to albinism in the chimeric leaves of <i>A. comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i>. The gene <i>AbhemC</i> comprised 1,135 bp and was encoded into a protein with 371 amino acids; phylogenetically, <i>AbhemC</i> was most closely related to <i>hemC</i> of pineapple<i>.</i> Prokaryotic expression and <i>in vitro</i> enzyme activity analysis showed that the cloned mRNA sequence of <i>AbhemC</i> was successfully integrated and had PBGD activity. Compared with control plants, transgenic tobacco leaves with pFGC5941-<i>AbhemC</i>-RNAi vector were substantially less green with significantly reduced <i>hemC</i> expression and Chl content, as well as reduced PBGD enzyme activity and significantly decreased content of Chl biosynthesis precursors from Urogen III onwards. Our results suggest that the absence of <i>hemC</i> expression reduces the enzyme activity of PBGD, which blocks the transition of PBG to Urogen III, and in turn suppresses Chl synthesis leading to the pale-green leaf color. Therefore, we suggest that <i>AbhemC</i> plays an important role in Chl synthesis and may be an important factor in the albinism of <i>A. comosus</i> var. <i>bracteatus</i> leaves.
Project description:Studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the albino leaf cells are important for understanding the development of chimera leaves in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. In this study, we identified a total of 163 novel miRNAs involved in the development of complete white (CWh) and complete green (CGr) leaves using high-throughput sequencing method. The potential miRNA target genes were predicted and annotated using the NR, Swiss-Prot, GO, COG, KEGG, KOG and Pfam databases. The main biological processes regulated by miRNAs were revealed. The miRNAs which potentially play important roles in the development of the leaves and the albino of the CWh leaf cells were selected and their expression patterns were analyzed. The expression levels of nine miRNAs and their potential target genes were studied using qRT-PCR. These results will help to elucidate the functional and regulatory roles of miRNAs in the formation of the albino cells and the development of the leaves of A. comosus var. bracteatus. These data may also be helpful as a resource for studies of small RNA in other leaf color chimeric plant species.