Project description:Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which is associated with higher levels of pertussis toxin (Ptx) production. Within 10 to 20 years, ptxP3 strains have nearly completely replaced the previously dominant ptxP1 strains resulting in a worldwide selective sweep. In order to identify B. pertussis genes associated with the selective sweep, we compared the expression of genes in ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains that are under control of the Bordetella master virulence regulatory locus (bvgASR). The BvgAS proteins comprise a two component sensory transduction system which is regulated by temperature, nicotinic acid and sulfate. By increasing the sulfate concentration, it is possible to change the phase of B. pertussis from virulent to avirulent. Until recently, the only distinctive phenotype of ptxP3 strains was a higher Ptx production. Here we identify additional phenotypic differences between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains which may have contributed to its global spread by comparing global transcriptional responses under sulfate-modulating conditions. We show that ptxP3 strains are less sensitive to sulfate-mediated gene suppression, resulting in an increased production of the vaccine antigens pertactin (Prn) and Ptx and a number of other virulence genes, including a type III secretion toxin, Vag8, a protein involved in complement resistance, and lpxE involved in lipid A modification. Furthermore, enhanced expression of the vaccine antigens Ptx and Prn by ptxP3 strains was confirmed at the protein level. Identification of genes differentially expressed between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains may elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination and allow the improvement of pertussis vaccines by identifying novel vaccine candidates. Overall design: This study was designed to investigate gene expression differences between the Bordetella pertussis strains ptxP1 and the ptxP3 in rich medium with different sulfate concentrations. Both the ptxP1 strain under low (<0.02 mM) , intermediate (5 mM) and high sulfate (50 mM) conditions and the ptxP3 strain under low, intermediate and high sulfate conditions. Culturing and gene expression analysis of B. pertussis was performed 4 times and analyzed using custom microarrays. Gene expression values were log2-transformed and differentially expressed genes were identified based on log2 fold changes. P values were calculated with a Bayes-regularized one-way ANOVA.
Project description:Murine lung gene expression responses to primary and secondary infection with Bordetella pertussis. Data were compared to other parameters such as flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays. Overall design: A 33 array study based on a common reference design.
Project description:Background Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical isolates in Finland. To better understand genome evolution in B. pertussis circulating in the immunized population, we developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray for comparative genomic analysis of Finnish strains isolated during the period of 50 years. Methodology/Principal Findings The microarray consisted of 3,582 oligonucleotides (70-mer) and covered 94% of the genome of Tohama I, the strain of which the genome has been sequenced . Twenty isolates from 1953 to 2004 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains and two international reference strains. The isolates were selected according to their characteristics, e.g. the year and place of isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Genomic DNA of the tested strains, along with reference DNA of Tohama I strain, was labelled and hybridized. The absence of genes as established with microarrays, was confirmed by PCR. Compared to the Tohama I strain, Finnish isolates lost 7 (8.6 kb) to 49 (55.3 kb) genes, clustered in one to four distinct loci. The number of lost genes increased with time, and one third of lost genes had functions related to ion transport, metabolism, or energy production and conversion. All four loci of lost genes were flanked by the insertion sequence element IS481. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that the progressive gene loss occurred in Finnish B. pertussis strains isolated during a period of 50 years and confirmed that B. pertussis is dynamic and is continuously evolving, suggesting that the bacterium may use gene loss as one strategy to adapt to highly immunized populations. Keywords: comparetive genomic hybridisation Overall design: All together 26 samples were analysed. Tohama I was always the reference. GSM200718 and GSM200719 are replicates. GSM200712 and GSM200714 are dye swaps.