Project description:Transcriptome analysis of periodontitis-associated fibroblasts by CAGE sequencing identified DLX5 and RUNX2 long variant as novel regulators involved in periodontitis Overall design: Transcriptome analysis of periodontitis-associated fibroblasts by CAGE sequencing identified DLX5 and RUNX2 long variant as novel regulators involved in periodontitis
Project description:Periodontitis is affecting over half of the adult population, and represents a major public health problem. Previously, we isolated a subset of gingival fibroblasts (GFs) from periodontitis patients, designated as periodontitis-associated fibroblasts (PAFs), which were highly capable of collagen degradation. To elucidate their molecular profiles, GFs isolated form healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissues were analyzed by CAGE-seq and integrated with the FANTOM5 atlas. GFs from healthy gingival tissues displayed distinctive patterns of CAGE profiles as compared to fibroblasts from other organ sites and characterized by specific expression of developmentally important transcription factors such as BARX1, PAX9, LHX8, and DLX5. In addition, a novel long non-coding RNA associated with LHX8 was described. Furthermore, we identified DLX5 regulating expression of the long variant of RUNX2 transcript, which was specifically active in GFs but not in their periodontitis-affected counterparts. Knockdown of these factors in GFs resulted in altered expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. These results indicate activation of DLX5 and RUNX2 via its distal promoter represents a unique feature of GFs, and is important for ECM regulation. Down-regulation of these transcription factors in PAFs could be associated with their property to degrade collagen, which may impact on the process of periodontitis.
Project description:Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a typical dentin-specific protein, is mainly expressed in the dentin extracellular matrix and plays a role in dentin mineralization. BMP-2 provides a strong signal for differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts and osteoblasts. Previously, BMP-2 treatment is reported to stimulate Dspp expression in the MD10-F2 pre-odontoblast cells through activation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor Y (NF-Y). The canonical BMP signaling pathway is known to contribute greatly to biomineralization, however, it is not known whether it is involved in Dspp expression. Here, we investigated this question. Activation of the canonical BMP-2 signaling pathway in MDPC-23, preodontoblast cell, by overexpression of constitutively active Smad1/5 or downstream transcription factors Dlx5 and Runx2 stimulated Dspp expression. Conversely, knockdown of each element with siRNA significantly blocked the BMP-2-induced Dspp expression. To test whether these transcription factors downstream of BMP-2 are directly involved in regulating Dspp, we analyzed the mouse Dspp promoter. There are 5 well conserved homeodomain binding elements, H1 to H5, in Dspp proximal promoter regions (-791 to +54). A serial deletion of H1 and H2 greatly changed basal promoter activity and responsiveness to Dlx5 or Msx2. However, further deletions did not change the responsiveness to Dlx5 or Msx2. H1 and H2 sites can be suggested as specific response elements of Dlx5 and Msx2, respectively, based on their promoter activity modulation. Thus, the canonical BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a crucial part in the regulation of Dspp expression through the action of Smads, Dlx5, Runx2, and Msx2.
Project description:Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification is an intriguing phenomenon involving the inappropriate ossification of soft tissues within the body such as the muscle and ligaments. This inappropriate formation of bone is highly prevalent in those affected by blast injuries. Here, we developed a simplified cell culture model to evaluate the molecular events involved in heterotopic ossification onset that arise from the shock wave component of the disease. We exposed three subtypes of human mesenchymal cells in vitro to a single, high-energy shock wave and observed increased transcription in the osteogenic master regulators, Runx2 and Dlx5, and significantly accelerated cell mineralisation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed that the shock wave altered methylation of gene promoters, leading to opposing changes in gene expression. Using a drug to target ITGAV, whose expression was perturbed by the shock wave, we found that we could abrogate the deposition of mineral in our model. These findings show how new therapeutics for the treatment of heterotopic ossification can be identified using cell culture models.
Project description:Osterix (Osx) is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor which is essential for bone formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously shown to be involved in osteogenesis. However, it is unclear whether Osx is involved in the regulation of miRNA expression. In this study, we have identified groups of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in calvaria of the E18.5 Osx(-/-) embryos compared to wild type embryos. The correlation between the levels of miRNAs and Osx expression was further verified in cultured M-Osx cells in which over-expression of Osx is inducible. Our results suggest that Osx down-regulates expression of a group of miRNAs including mir-133a and -204/211, but up-regulates expression of another group of miRNAs such as mir-141/200a. Mir-133a and -204/211 are known to target the master osteogenic transcription factor Runx2. Further assays suggest that Sost, which encodes the Wnt signaling antagonist Sclerostin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are two additional targets of mir-204/211. Mir-141/200a has been known to target the transcription factor Dlx5. Thus, we postulate that during the process of Osx-controlled osteogenesis, Osx has the ability to coordinately modulate Runx2, Sclerostin, ALP and Dlx5 proteins at levels appropriate for optimal osteoblast differentiation and function, at least in part, through regulation of specific miRNAs. Our study shows a tight correlation between Osx and the miRNAs involved in bone formation, and provides new information about molecular mechanisms of Osx-controlled osteogenesis.
Project description:Osteoblast differentiation is achieved by activating a transcriptional network in which Dlx5, Runx2 and Osx/SP7 have fundamental roles. The tumour suppressor p53 exerts a repressive effect on bone development and remodelling through an unknown mechanism that inhibits the osteoblast differentiation programme. Here we report a physical and functional interaction between Osx and p53 gene products. Physical interaction was found between overexpressed proteins and involved a region adjacent to the OSX zinc fingers and the DNA-binding domain of p53. This interaction results in a p53-mediated repression of OSX transcriptional activity leading to a downregulation of the osteogenic programme. Moreover, we show that p53 is also able to repress key osteoblastic genes in Runx2-deficient osteoblasts. The ability of p53 to suppress osteogenesis is independent of its DNA recognition ability but requires a native conformation of p53, as a conformational missense mutant failed to inhibit OSX. Our data further demonstrates that p53 inhibits OSX binding to their responsive Sp1/GC-rich sites in the promoters of their osteogenic target genes, such as IBSP or COL1A1. Moreover, p53 interaction to OSX sequesters OSX from binding to DLX5. This competition blocks the ability of OSX to act as a cofactor of DLX5 to activate homeodomain-containing promoters. Altogether, our data support a model wherein p53 represses OSX-DNA binding and DLX5-OSX interaction, and thereby deregulates the osteogenic transcriptional network. This mechanism might have relevant roles in bone pathologies associated to osteosarcomas and ageing.
Project description:Numerous transcription factors are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype, such as Runx2, osterix and Dlx5. The transcription factor retinoblastoma binding protein-1 (RBP1) was recently identified as an estrogen regulated gene in an osteosarcoma cell model. Since the function of RBP1 in osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization is unknown, we investigated the role of RBP1 in these processes.To create a cell model with suppressed RBP1 expression, primary calvarial osteoblasts were infected with a shRNA lentiviral vector specific for mouse RBP1 (CalOB-DeltaRBP1) or a scrambled control shRNA lentivirus (CalOB-Control). Stable cell lines were generated and their mineralization potential was determined using osteoblastic differentiation medium, Alizarin Red staining, and quantitative PCR (QPCR) analyses. Runx2 coactivation by RBP1 was determined through the use of transient transfection assays.Stable expression of the RBP1 shRNA lentivirus in CalOB-DeltaRBP1 cells resulted in a 65-70% suppression of RBP1 expression. Osteoblastic mineralization assays demonstrated that suppression of RBP1 results in a potent delay in osteoblastic nodule formation in the CalOB-DeltaRBP1 cells with a concomitant decrease in the expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Runx2 and osterix, along with decreases in BMP2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. Regulation of Runx2 expression by RBP1 was shown to be mediated through the proximal P2 Runx2 promoter. Furthermore, RBP1 was demonstrated to be a potent coactivator of Runx2 transcriptional activity on two known Runx2 reporter constructs. These data suggest that the expression and activity of Runx2 is critically dependent on the presence of RBP1.This study is the first to demonstrate that RBP1 is an important mediator of the osteoblastic phenotype and clearly defines RBP1 as a novel transcription factor involved in the well known Runx2-osterix transcriptional cascade. As such, the effects of RBP1 on these processes are mediated through both regulation of Runx2 expression and transcriptional activity.