Project description:Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Four species of cockroaches are found to reside in Korean homes, but published work deals almost exclusively with the German and American cockroaches. This study was undertaken to investigate the cross-reactive allergenic components of the dusky brown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition and immunoblot analyses for the dusky brown cockroach were performed with Blattella germanica and Dermatophagoides farinae allergic sera. cDNA encoding tropomyosin, which is a well known cross-reactive pan-allergen, was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR, and recombinant protein was produced by using a pET-28b expression system. Native tropomyosin was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and electroelution. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of native and recombinant tropomyosins were compared by an ELISA inhibition study. All 30 sera tested showed P. fuliginosa-specific IgE, and the IgE-binding reactivity of the P. fuliginosa extract was inhibited as much as 79.4% by a B. germanica extract and as much as 63.3% by a D. farinae extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of cloned cDNA was identical with that of Periplaneta americana tropomyosin (98.5% nucleotide sequence identity). Seven of 26 (26.9%) allergic sera had IgE specific for recombinant protein, and the maximum inhibition of P. fuliginosa-specific IgE achieved with recombinant tropomyosin was 37.7% at an inhibitor concentration of 10 microg/ml. Native tropomyosin inhibited the binding of IgE to the P. fuliginosa, B. germanica, and D. farinae extracts by 65.0, 51.8, and 39% at an inhibitor concentration of 1 microg/ml. P. fuliginosa appears to possess allergens that are highly cross-reactive with allergens of B. germanica and D. farinae. Tropomyosin was found to be a major allergenic component accounting for the cross-reactivity between cockroaches and dust mites.
Project description:Host specificity of parasites is important for the understanding of evolutionary strategies of parasitism that would be a basis of predictions of the disease expansion when parasitized hosts invade new environments. The nematode order Oxyurida is an interesting parasite group for studying the evolution of parasitism as it includes parasites of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In our survey, we found that the smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa was primarily infected with only one nematode species Leidynema appendiculatum. In two cases, L. appendiculatum was isolated from two additional cockroach species Pycnoscelus surinamensis, sold in Japan as a reptile food, and Blatta lateralis, captured in the field and cultured in the laboratory. Inoculation of L. appendiculatum into three additional cockroach species P. japonica, Blattella nipponica, and P. surinamensis also resulted in parasitism. Infection prevalence was high, and timing of postembryonic development from hatched nematode larva to mature adult in these hosts was identical with that in P. fuliginosa. While ecological interactions strongly determine the host range, such broad infectivity is still possible in this parasitic nematode.
Project description:The successful adaptation of cockroaches is, in part, dependent of the activity of their obligatory endosymbionts, Blattabacterium spp., which are involved in uric acid degradation, nitrogen assimilation and nutrient provisioning. Their strategic localization, within bacteriocytes in the proximities of uric acid storage cells (urocytes), highlights their importance in the recycling of nitrogen from urea and ammonia, end-products not secreted by their host insects. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of two new Blattabacterium spp. from Periplaneta fuliginosa (BPfu) and P. japonica (BPja), and detailed comparison with other Blattabacterium strains from different cockroach species. The genomes of BPfu and BPja show a high degree of stability as showed with for other Blattabacterium representatives, only presenting a 19-kb fragment inversion between BPja and BPfu. In fact, the phylogenomics showed BPja as an ancestor species of BPfu, BPLAN (P. americana) and BBor (Blatta orientalis), in congruence with their host cockroach phylogeny. Their functional profile is similar and closest to the omnivorous strain BBge (Blattella germanica). Interesting, BPja possesses the complete set of enzymes involved sulfate assimilatory pathway only found in BBge and BMda (Mastotermes darwiniensis). The newly sequenced genomes of BPja and BPfu emphasise the remarkable stability of Blattabacterium genomes supported by their long-term coevolution and obligatory lifestyle in their host insect.
Project description:Cockroaches are parasitized by thelastomatid nematodes, which live in an obligate manner in their hindgut and interact with the resident microbial community. In the present study, a composition analysis was performed on the gut microbiome of Periplaneta fuliginosa and P. americana to investigate natural and artificial infection by thelastomatid nematodes. Nine libraries of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region were prepared for pyrosequencing. We examined the complete gut microbiome (fore-, mid-, and hindgut) of lab-reared P. fuliginosa naturally infected with the parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculatum and those that were nematode-free, and complemented our study by characterizing the hindgut microbial communities of lab-reared P. americana naturally infected with Hammerschmidtiella diesingi and Thelastoma bulhoesi, artificially infected with L. appendiculatum, and those that were nematode-free. Our results revealed that the fore- and midgut of naturally infected and nematode-free P. fuliginosa have close microbial communities, which is in contrast with hindgut communities; the hindgut communities of both cockroaches exhibit higher microbial diversities in the presence of their natural parasites and marked differences were observed in the abundance of the most representative taxa, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results have provided basic information and encourage further studies on multitrophic interactions in the cockroach gut as well as the thelastomatid nematodes that play a role in this environment.
Project description:DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (?0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%-4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations.