Project description:The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM . Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC.
Project description:Appropriate gene expression patterns form the basis for bone microvascular endothelial cells' function in femoral head. Although previous studies have elucidated the impact of glucocorticoids on these cells' specific gene expression the exact differential transcriptomes and comprehensive gene expression profiles remain unknown. Using microarray-based platforms we investigated the transcriptome patterns before and after hydrocortisone administration of bone microvascular endothelial cells from human femoral head. Our results highlight the involvement of development differentiation and apoptosis in the bone microvascular endothelial cells. Elucidation of differential gene expression before and after hydrocortisone administration emphasizes the importance of regulatory networks to gene co-expression within biological processes induced by glucocorticoids. With Benjamini-Hochberg characterization we identified 73 up-regulated and 166 down-regulated long noncoding RNAs the expression of 107 of which significantly correlated with 172 mRNAs after administration of hydrocortisone. Transcriptome analysis of bone microvascular endothelial cells from human femoral head samples is highly informative because it is deduced from data comprised of large number of genes expressed above background. The data have been submitted to the repository of Gene Expression Omnibus (Series GSE60332).
Project description:The involvement of microRNAs in cancer and their potential as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis are becoming increasingly appreciated. We sought to identify microRNAs altered in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to determine whether microRNA expression is predictive of disease.RNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary tumors, fresh-frozen nondiseased head and neck epithelial tissues, and HNSCC cell lines was profiled for the expression of 662 microRNAs by microarray. The microRNAs that were both differentially expressed on the array and by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were subsequently validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using a total of 99 HNSCC samples and 14 normal epithelia.A marked difference in microRNA expression pattern was observed between tumors and cell lines. Eighteen microRNAs were significantly altered in their expression between normal tissues and tumors. Four of these microRNAs were validated in the larger sample series, and each showed significant differential expression (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, an expression ratio of miR-221:miR-375 showed a high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.93) for disease prediction.These data suggest that cultured tumor cell lines are inappropriate for microRNA biomarker identification and that the pattern of microRNA expression in primary head and neck tissues is reflective of disease status, with certain microRNAs exhibiting strong predictive potential. These results indicate that miR-221 and miR-375 should be evaluated further as diagnostic biomarkers because they may hold utility in defining broadly responsive prevention and treatment strategies for HNSCC.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to have a causal role in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. While HPV-positive head and neck cancer is associated with a better response to treatment in the majority of patients, there is a subset who does not respond favorably to current therapy. Identification of these patients could prevent unnecessary morbidity and indicate the need for alternative therapeutic options. Tissue samples were obtained from 19 patients with HPV-positive head and neck squamous carcinoma treated with chemoradiation therapy. HPV status was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis through detection of HPV16 E7 in both DNA and RNA. RNA was isolated from tissue samples and subjected to microarray gene expression analysis. In addition to identification of potential genetic biomarkers (including LCE3D, KRTDAP, HMOX1, KRT19, MDK, TSPAN1), differentially expressed genes associated with genomic stability, cell cycle, and DNA damage were detected between responders and non-responders. These results were further validated with publicly available gene expression studies. This pilot study suggests prospective biomarkers that predict response to therapy. The importance of genes involved with genomic stability is highlighted in both development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma but also recurrence. Potential development of an assay may prove beneficial to clinicians, assisting them to provide alternative care sooner thus lowering morbidity.
Project description:41 lung adenocarcinoma from never-smokers hybridized on Illumina SNP arrays on 13 HumanCNV370-Quadv3 chips. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in 41 never smokers for identification of new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss. The SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity.The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers. A 'Cartes d'Identite des Tumeurs' (CIT) project from the French National League Against Cancer (http://cit.ligue-cancer.net) 41 samples hybridized on Illumina SNP arrays. Submitter : Fabien PETEL email@example.com . Project leader : Pr Pierre FOURET firstname.lastname@example.org
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway has been previously implicated as a crucial signal promoting tumorigenesis. However, how NF-kappaB acts as a key regulatory node to modulate global gene expression, and contributes to the malignant heterogeneity of head and neck cancer, is not well understood. RESULTS:To address this question, we used a newly developed computational strategy, COGRIM (Clustering Of Gene Regulons using Integrated Modeling), to identify NF-kappaB regulons (a set of genes under regulation of the same transcription factor) for 1,265 genes differentially expressed by head and neck cancer cell lines differing in p53 status. There were 748 NF-kappaB targets predicted and individually annotated for RELA, NFkappaB1 or cREL regulation, and a prevalence of RELA related genes was observed in over-expressed clusters in a tumor subset. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the NF-kappaB targets were reverse-engineered into annotated signature networks and pathways, revealing relationships broadly altered in cancer lines (activated proinflammatory and down-regulated Wnt/beta-catenin and transforming growth factor-beta pathways), or specifically defective in cancer subsets (growth factors, cytokines, integrins, receptors and intermediate kinases). Representatives of predicted NF-kappaB target genes were experimentally validated through modulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha or small interfering RNA for RELA or NFkappaB1. CONCLUSION:NF-kappaB globally regulates diverse gene programs that are organized in signal networks and pathways differing in cancer subsets with distinct p53 status. The concerted alterations in gene expression patterns reflect cross-talk among NF-kappaB and other pathways, which may provide a basis for molecular classifications and targeted therapeutics for heterogeneous subsets of head and neck or other cancers.
Project description:Alternative mRNA splicing increases protein diversity, and alternative splicing events (ASEs) drive oncogenesis in multiple tumor types. However, the driving alterations that underlie the broad dysregulation of ASEs are incompletely defined. Using head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as a model, we hypothesized that the genomic alteration of genes associated with the spliceosome may broadly induce ASEs across a broad range of target genes, driving an oncogenic phenotype. We identified 319 spliceosome genes and employed a discovery pipeline to identify 13 candidate spliceosome genes altered in HNSCC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNSCC data. Phenotypic screens identified amplified and overexpressed CPSF1 as a target gene alteration that was validated in proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis assays in cell line and xenograft systems as well as in primary HNSCC. We employed knockdown and overexpression assays followed by identification of ASEs regulated by CPSF1 overexpression to identify changes in ASEs, and the expression of these ASEs was validated using RNA from cell line models. Alterations in expression of spliceosome genes, including CPSF1, may contribute to HNSCC by mediating aberrant ASE expression.