Project description:Purpose: Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) DNA input requirements become a challenge when working with small pools of tissue-specific cell types. We describe an application of the RRBS method to assess DNA methylation on low-DNA input from human slow-twitch (MHC I) and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) skeletal muscle fibers. Methods : Fiber-type specific (MHC I and MHC IIa muscle fibers) total DNA was extracted from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 8 young physically active men (~25 yrs). A total of 16 DNA samples were generated : 8 DNA samples from pure MHC I and 8 DNA samples from pure MHC IIa muscle fibers. An equal quantity of DNA (4 ng) from each sample was combined to generate a "pooled" DNA sample representing all 8 subjects for each fiber type. Two fiber-type specific "pooled" samples of 32 ng of DNA were generated for library construction and sequencing, creating a Type 1 (MHC I muscle fibers) and Type 2a (MHC IIa muscle fibers) sample. Sequencing was performed using the HiSeq 2500 (Illumina) with 50 bp paired-end read parameters. Minimum sequencing read coverage of 5 (5x) was used as the cutoff for CpG-sites inclusion in the DNA methylation analysis. Fisher’s exact test was performed on CpG-sites that overlapped (i.e. identified in both samples) Type 1 and Type 2a samples to obtain p-values that indicate the likelihood of the site being a differentially methylated CpG-site (DMS). DMS with p<0.05 were classified as hypermethylated or hypomethylated if they were more or less methylated than the Type 1 sample, which was used as the reference sample. Results: The 32 ng of DNA from fiber-type specific muscle samples (Type 1 and 2a) used in this study ensured similar sequencing quality as compared to other studies using greater DNA input (>50 ng). Mapping ratios of ~47% and bisulfite conversion rates of ~97-98% were obtained.The unique and best alignment was successfully assessed for each of 17,376,728 CpG-sites in the Type 1 sample and 17,006,993 in the Type 2a sample, which represents ~30% of the total CpG number in the human genome. We identified 143,160 differentially methylated CpG-sites (DMS) across 14,046 genes among MHC I and MHC IIa muscle fibers. The analysis revealed that some genes predominantly expressed in MHC I were hypermethylated in MHC IIa muscle fibers. Conclusion: This study validates a low-DNA input RRBS method for human skeletal muscle samples to investigate the methylation patterns at a fiber-type specific level. These are the first fiber-type specific methylation data reported from human skeletal muscle. Considering the metabolic and structural differences between MHC I and MHC IIa muscle fibers, this technique could provide novel insights into the skeletal muscle methylation profile in relation to health, performance, disease or disuse. Overall design: Comparison of DNA methylation profiles in slow-twitch (MHC I) and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) human skeletal muscle fibers.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A. Slow fibers upregulate a subset of actin and myosin chaperones, whereas an opposite change happens in fast fibers. These changes in metabolism and sarcomere quality control may be related to the ability of slow, but not fast, muscle fibers to maintain their mass during aging. We conclude that single muscle fiber analysis by proteomics can elucidate pathophysiology in a sub-type specific manner.
Project description:Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle fiber proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces skeletal muscle atrophy in living mice. We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, the MAP kinase kinase kinase MEKK4. Furthermore, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level.
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Skeletal muscle must perform a wide range of kinds of work, and different fiber types have evolved to accommodate these different tasks. The attributes of fibers are determined in large part by the coordinated regulation of oxidative capacity, as reflected by mitochondrial content, and the specific makeup of myofibrillar proteins. Adult muscle fibers contain four myosin heavy chain isotypes: I, IIa, IIx and IIb. Type I and IIa fibers have slower twitches and are rich in mitochondria, while type IIb fibers are fast-twitch and predominantly glycolytic. The intermediate IIx fibers are less well understood. Previous work had shown that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 alpha could drive the formation of type I and IIa muscle fibers. We show here that mice with transgenic expression of PGC-1 beta in skeletal muscle results in marked induction of IIx fibers. The fibers in transgenic mice are rich in mitochondria and are highly oxidative. As a result, PGC-1 beta transgenic animals can perform oxidative activity for longer and at higher work loads than wild type animals. In cell culture, PGC-1 beta coactivates the MEF2 family of transcription factors to stimulate the MHC IIx promoter. Together, these data indicate that PGC-1 beta is sufficient to drive the formation in vivo of highly oxidative fibers with type IIx characteristics.
Project description:Analysis of skeletal muscle DNA methylation from type 2 diabetic volunteers before and after 16 weeks of chronic exercise training (two groups, one undergoing aerobic excercise and the other resistance training exercise) A biopsy was collected from the right Vastus Lateralis under local anaesthesia andGenomic DNA was extracted from 5-10 mg muscle, Bisulphite conversion (Illumina) was checked using methylation specific PCR. 4 μl of bisulphite-converted DNA was used for hybridization on Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip (Illumina)
Project description:In skeletal muscle, STAT5a/b transcription factors are critical for normal postnatal growth, whole-animal glucose homeostasis, and local IGF-1 production. These observations have led us to hypothesize that STAT5a/b are critical for maintenance of normal muscle mass and function. To investigate this, mice with a skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Stat5a/b genes (Stat5MKO) were used. Stat5MKO mice displayed reduced muscle mass, altered fiber-type distribution and reduced activity. On a molecular level, gene expression in skeletal muscle of Stat5MKO and control mice was analyzed by microarrays and real-time PCR, both in the presence and absence of growth hormone (GH) stimulation. Several genes involved in muscle growth, fiber-type and metabolism were significantly changed. Specifically in the quadriceps, a muscle almost exclusively composed of type II fibers, the absence of STAT5a/b led to increased expression of several genes associated with type I fibers and the de novo appearance of type I fibers. Additionally, it is shown here that expression of the androgen receptor gene (Ar) is controlled by GH through STAT5a/b. The link between STAT5a/b and Ar gene is likely through direct transcriptional regulation, as chromatin immunoprecipitaion of the Ar promoter region in C2C12 myoblasts was accomplished by antibodies against STAT5a. These experiments demonstrate an important role for STAT5a/b in skeletal muscle physiology and they provide a direct link to androgen signaling. Keywords: stat5 KO or WT treated or w/o GH Overall design: Total 6 WT controls and 6 stat5a/b KO mice, treated or w/o GH