Project description:BACKGROUND:Hongyingzi is a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivar for brewing Moutai liquor. For an overall understanding of the whole genome of Hongyingzi, we performed whole-genome resequencing technology to reveal its comprehensive variations. RESULTS:Compared with the BTx623 reference genome, we uncovered 1,885,774 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 309,381 small fragments insertions and deletions (Indels), 31,966 structural variations (SVs), and 217,273 copy number variations (CNVs). These alterations conferred 29,614 gene variations. It was also predicted that 35 gene variations were related to the multidrug and toxic efflux (MATE) transporter, chalcone synthase (CHS), ATPase isoform 10 (AHA10) transporter, dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), the laccase 15 (LAC15), flavonol 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), O-methyltransferase (OMT), flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H), UDP-glucose:sterol-glucosyltransferase (SGT), flavonol synthase (FLS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI) involved in the tannin synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:These results would provide theoretical supports for the molecular markers developments and gene function studies related to the tannin synthesis, and the genetic improvement of liquor-making sorghum based on the genome editing technology.
Project description:Burkholderia andropogonis is the causal agent of bacterial leaf stripe, one of the three major bacterial diseases affecting Sorghum bicolor. However, the biochemical aspects of the pathophysiological host responses are not well understood. An untargeted metabolomics approach was designed to understand molecular mechanisms underlying S. bicolor?B. andropogonis interactions. At the 4-leaf stage, two sorghum cultivars (NS 5511 and NS 5655) differing in disease tolerance, were infected with B. andropogonis and the metabolic changes monitored over time. The NS 5511 cultivar displayed delayed signs of wilting and lesion progression compared to the NS 5655 cultivar, indicative of enhanced resistance. The metabolomics results identified statistically significant metabolites as biomarkers associated with the sorghum defence. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and zeatin. Moreover, metabolic reprogramming in an array of chemically diverse metabolites that span a wide range of metabolic pathways was associated with the defence response. Signatory biomarkers included aromatic amino acids, shikimic acid, metabolites from the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, as well as fatty acids. Enhanced synthesis and accumulation of apigenin and derivatives thereof was a prominent feature of the altered metabolomes. The analyses revealed an intricate and dynamic network of the sorghum defence arsenal towards B. andropogonis in establishing an enhanced defensive capacity in support of resistance and disease suppression. The results pave the way for future analysis of the biosynthesis of signatory biomarkers and regulation of relevant metabolic pathways in sorghum.
Project description:Despite a "ploidy barrier," interspecific crosses to wild and/or cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, 2n = 2x = 20) may have aided the spread across six continents of Sorghum halepense, also exemplifying risks of "transgene escape" from crops that could make weeds more difficult to control. Genetic maps of two BC1F1 populations derived from crosses of S. bicolor (sorghum) and S. halepense with totals of 722 and 795 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers span 37 and 35 linkage groups, with 2-6 for each of the 10 basic sorghum chromosomes due to fragments covering different chromosomal portions or independent segregation from different S. halepense homologs. Segregation distortion favored S. halepense alleles on chromosomes 2 (1.06-4.68 Mb, near a fertility restoration gene), 7 (1.20-6.16 Mb), 8 (1.81-5.33 Mb, associated with gene conversion), and 9 (47.5-50.1 Mb); and S. bicolor alleles on chromosome 6 (0-40 Mb), which contains both a large heterochromatin block and the Ma1 gene. Regions of the S. halepense genome that are recalcitrant to gene flow from sorghum might be exploited as part a multi-component system to reduce the likelihood of spread of transgenes or other modified genes. Its SNP profile suggests that chromosome segments from its respective progenitors S. bicolor and Sorghum propinquum have extensively recombined in S. halepense. This study reveals genomic regions that might discourage crop-to-weed gene escape, and provides a foundation for marker-trait association analysis to determine the genetic control of traits contributing to weediness, invasiveness, and perenniality of S. halepense.
Project description:Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends (PARE) sequencing reads were generated to validate putative microRNAs and identify cleavage sites in Sorghum bicolor and Setaria viridis. Overall design: For Sorghum bicolor, a variety of conditions were used to generate total RNA, including leaf and three stages of anther development. For Setaria viridis, single replicates of leaf, panicle, and two stages of spikelets were sampled.
Project description:To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 13,390 single-nucleotide polymorphims. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were produced using a highly multiplexed genotyping-by-sequencing methodology. Genetic structure was established using principal component, Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic, and Bayesian cluster analyses. These analyses indicated that the mini-core collection was structured along both geographic origin and sorghum race classification. Examples of the former were accessions from Southern Africa, East Asia, and Yemen. Examples of the latter were caudatums with widespread geographical distribution, durras from India, and guineas from West Africa. Race bicolor, the most primitive and the least clearly defined sorghum race, clustered among other races and formed only one clear bicolor-centric cluster. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analyses showed linkage disequilibrium decayed, on average, within 10-30 kb, whereas the short arm of SBI-06 contained a linkage disequilibrium block of 20.33 Mb, confirming a previous report of low recombination on this chromosome arm. Four smaller but equally significant linkage disequilibrium blocks of 3.5-35.5 kb were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, and 10. We examined the genes encoded within each block to provide a first look at candidates such as homologs of GS3 and FT that may indicate a selective sweep during sorghum domestication.
Project description:Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.
Project description:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.
Project description:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a major food cereal for millions of people worldwide. The sorghum genome, like other species, accumulates deleterious mutations, likely impacting its fitness. The lack of recombination, drift, and the coupling with favorable loci impede the removal of deleterious mutations from the genome by selection. To study how deleterious variants impact phenotypes, we identified putative deleterious mutations among ?5.5 M segregating variants of 229 diverse biomass sorghum lines. We provide the whole-genome estimate of the deleterious burden in sorghum, showing that ?33% of nonsynonymous substitutions are putatively deleterious. The pattern of mutation burden varies appreciably among racial groups. Across racial groups, the mutation burden correlated negatively with biomass, plant height, specific leaf area (SLA), and tissue starch content (TSC), suggesting that deleterious burden decreases trait fitness. Putatively deleterious variants explain roughly one-half of the genetic variance. However, there is only moderate improvement in total heritable variance explained for biomass (7.6%) and plant height (average of 3.1% across all stages). There is no advantage in total heritable variance for SLA and TSC. The contribution of putatively deleterious variants to phenotypic diversity therefore appears to be dependent on the genetic architecture of traits. Overall, these results suggest that incorporating putatively deleterious variants into genomic models slightly improves prediction accuracy because of extensive linkage. Knowledge of deleterious variants could be leveraged for sorghum breeding through either genome editing and/or conventional breeding that focuses on the selection of progeny with fewer deleterious alleles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop. RESULTS:We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life. CONCLUSIONS:This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species.