Project description:Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is a fungus that produces aflatoxin B1, one of the most carcinogenic secondary metabolites. Understanding the regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis in this fungus requires precise methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles. To avoid the disadvantage of DNA integration into the genome by non-homologous or ectopic recombination, we developed a novel strategy for site-specific integration of foreign DNA by using a carboxin-resistant sdh2R allele (His 249 Leu). Our results demonstrated that the transformants were generated with a high efficiency (>96%) of correct integration into the sdh2-lcus of the genome of A. flavus NRRL 3357. The advantage of this method is that introduction of the eGFP expression cassette into the sdh2-locus had little effect on fungal growth and virulence while also being rapid and efficient. This system will be a valuable tool for genetic manipulation in A. flavus To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the efficient site-specific integration at the sdh2-locus in the genome of Aspergillus.
Project description:Aspergillus oryzae and A. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the secondary metabolite production. In this study we report on the first comparison of secondary metabolite production between the full genome sequenced strains of A. oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357). Surprisingly, the overall chemical profiles of the two strains were mostly very different across 15 growth conditions. Contrary to previous studies we found the aflatrem precursor 13-desoxypaxilline to be a major metabolite from A. oryzae under certain growth conditions. For the first time, we additionally report A. oryzae to produce parasiticolide A and two new analogues hereof, along with four new alkaloids related to the A. flavus metabolites ditryptophenalines and miyakamides. Generally the secondary metabolite capability of A. oryzae presents several novel end products likely to result from the domestication process from A. flavus.
Project description:The efficacy of eleven essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 was investigated. The highest antifungal activity against this aflatoxigenic fungus was exhibited by cinnamon, oregano and lemongrass, which showed low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under vapor conditions. Interactions of the three EOs were evaluated by the fractional inhibition concentration index (FICI), and the composite essential oils (CEO) showed synergistic inhibitory activities. Chemical analysis of the composite essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and lemongrass (COL-CEO) revealed that (Z)-citral (33.44%), (E)-citral (32.88%) and carvacrol (19.84%) were the dominant components, followed by limonene (4.29%) and cinnamaldehyde (3.76%). COL-CEO not only inhibited fungal growth but also decreased aflatoxin B1 production by A. flavus. Downregulation of the relative expression of aflatoxin genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway by COL-CEO revealed its anti-aflatoxigenic mechanism. COL-CEO could also affect the colonization of A. flavus on maize grains. Therefore, COL-CEO may be considered as a potential natural antifungal agent, which could be used for the storage of maize and other grains.