Project description:Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357.
Project description:Aspergillus oryzae and A. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the secondary metabolite production. In this study we report on the first comparison of secondary metabolite production between the full genome sequenced strains of A. oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357). Surprisingly, the overall chemical profiles of the two strains were mostly very different across 15 growth conditions. Contrary to previous studies we found the aflatrem precursor 13-desoxypaxilline to be a major metabolite from A. oryzae under certain growth conditions. For the first time, we additionally report A. oryzae to produce parasiticolide A and two new analogues hereof, along with four new alkaloids related to the A. flavus metabolites ditryptophenalines and miyakamides. Generally the secondary metabolite capability of A. oryzae presents several novel end products likely to result from the domestication process from A. flavus.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that infects corn, peanuts, tree nuts and other agriculturally important crops. Once the crop is infected the fungus has the potential to secrete one or more mycotoxins, the most carcinogenic of which is aflatoxin. Aflatoxin contaminated crops are deemed unfit for human or animal consumption, which results in both food and economic losses. Within A. flavus, two morphotypes exist: the S strains (small sclerotia) and L strains (large sclerotia). Significant morphological and physiological differences exist between the two morphotypes. For example, the S-morphotypes produces sclerotia that are smaller (< 400 ?m), greater in quantity, and contain higher concentrations of aflatoxin than the L-morphotypes (>400 ?m). The morphotypes also differ in pigmentation, pH homeostasis in culture and the number of spores produced. Here we report the first full genome sequence of an A. flavus S morphotype, strain AF70. We provide a comprehensive comparison of the A. flavus S-morphotype genome sequence with a previously sequenced genome of an L-morphotype strain (NRRL 3357), including an in-depth analysis of secondary metabolic clusters and the identification SNPs within their aflatoxin gene clusters.