Project description:The transferred microbiota from mother to baby constitutes the initial infant gastrointestinal microbiota and has an important influence on the development and health of infants in human. However, the reproductive tract microbiota of avian species and its inheritance have rarely been studied. We aimed to characterize the microbial community in the chicken reproductive tract and determine the origin of the chicken embryo gut microbiota. Microbiota in four different portions of chicken oviduct were determined using 16S rRNA metagenomic approach with the IonTorrent platform. Additionally, we analyzed the mother hen's magnum and cloaca, descendent egg, and embryo gut microbiota. The microbial composition and relative abundance of bacterial genera were stable throughout the entire chicken reproductive tract, without significant differences between the different parts of the oviduct. The chicken reproductive tract showed a relatively high abundance of Lactobacillus species. The number of bacterial species in the chicken reproductive tract significantly increased following sexual maturation. Core genera analysis detected 21 of common genera in the maternal magnum and cloaca, descendent egg shell, egg white, and embryo gut. Some elements of the maternal oviduct microbiota appear to be transferred to the embryo through the egg white and constitute most of the embryo gut bacterial population.
Project description:The inclusion of antibiotic growth promoters, such as virginiamycin, at subtherapeutic levels in poultry feeds has a positive effect on health and growth characteristics, possibly due to beneficial effects on the host gastrointestinal microbiota. To improve our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and the effect of virginiamycin on its composition, we characterized the bacteria found in five different gastrointestinal tract locations (duodenal loop, mid-jejunum, proximal ileum, ileocecal junction, and cecum) in 47-day-old chickens that were fed diets excluding or including virginiamycin throughout the production cycle. Ten libraries (five gastrointestinal tract locations from two groups of birds) of approximately 555-bp chaperonin 60 PCR products were prepared, and 10,932 cloned sequences were analyzed. A total of 370 distinct cpn60 sequences were identified, which ranged in frequency of recovery from 1 to 2,872. The small intestinal libraries were dominated by sequences from the Lactobacillales (90% of sequences), while the cecum libraries were more diverse and included members of the Clostridiales (68%), Lactobacillales (25%), and Bacteroidetes (6%). To assess the effects of virginiamycin on the gastrointestinal microbiota, 15 bacterial targets were enumerated using quantitative, real-time PCR. Virginiamycin was associated with increased abundance of many of the targets in the proximal gastrointestinal tract (duodenal loop to proximal ileum), with fewer targets affected in the distal regions (ileocecal junction and cecum). These findings provide improved profiling of the composition of the chicken intestinal microbiota and indicate that microbial responses to virginiamycin are most significant in the proximal small intestine.
Project description:The feline gastrointestinal microbiota have direct influence on feline health and also human health as a reservoir for potential zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. In order to describe the feline gastrointestinal microbial diversity, fecal samples from cats have been characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. However, data correlating total microbial composition and their functions are lacking. Present descriptive study evaluated both phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of the feline intestinal microbiota using GS Junior titanium shotgun pyrosequencing. A total of 152,494 pyrosequencing reads (5405 assembled contigs) were generated and classified into both phylogenetic and metabolic profiles of the feline intestinal microbiota. The Bacteroides/Chlorobi group was the most predominant bacterial phylum comprising ~68% of total classified diversity, followed by Firmicutes (~13%) and Proteobacteria (~6%) respectively. Archaea, fungi and viruses made up the minor communities in the overall microbial diversity. Interestingly, this study also identified a range of potential enteric zoonotic pathogens (0.02-1.25%) and genes involved in antimicrobial resistance (0.02-0.7%) in feline fecal materials. Based on clustering among nine gastrointestinal metagenomes from five different monogastric hosts (dog, human, mice, cat and chicken), the cat metagenome clustered closely together with chicken in both phylogenetic and metabolic level (>80%). Future studies are required to provide deeper understandings on both intrinsic and extrinsic effects such as impact of age, genetics and dietary interventions on the composition of the feline gastrointestinal microbiome.
Project description:Lactobacillus crispatus is a common member of the beneficial microbiota present in the vertebrate gastrointestinal and human genitourinary tracts. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. crispatus ST1, a chicken isolate displaying strong adherence to vaginal epithelial cells.
Project description:Tibetan Chickens should have unique gastrointestinal microbiota because of their particular habitats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chickens from five typical high-altitude regions of China. Lohmann egg-laying hens (LMs) and Daheng broiler chickens (DHs) were chosen as controls. The cecal bacterial populations of Tibetan Chickens were surveyed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable region V3-V4 (16S rRNAV3-V4) combined with community-fingerprinting analysis of the 16S rRNA gene based on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results revealed that the majority of cecal microbiota differed between the Tibetan Chicken and LM/DH. The microbial communities in the cecum were composed of 16 phyla, 28 classes, 36 orders, 57 families, 101 genera, and 189 species. Represented phyla were Bacteroidetes (>47%), Firmicutes (>18.8%), Spirochaetae (>0.3%), and Proteobacteria (>0.4%). Bacteroides and the RC9 gut group were the two most abundant genera. There were relatively more Christensenellaceae, Subdoligranulum, Spirochaeta, and Treponema in Tibetan Chickens, whereas there were more Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Megamonas, and Desulfovibrio in LMs and DHs. The cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chicken have slightly diverged due to exposure to different geographic environments. Differences in the intestinal bacterial communities of Tibetan Chicken and LM/DH were noted.
Project description:The microbiome of the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been extensively studied, and it has been amply demonstrated that it plays an important role in the health of the host, as it has a positive impact on the immune system, the physiology of the GIT, and productivity. Also, the microbiota is involved in reducing and preventing colonization by enteric pathogens through the process of competitive exclusion and the production of bacteriostatic and bactericidal substances. The taxonomic composition of the microbiota is affected by different factors, such as the organ, the age of the animal, diet and the use of antimicrobials.Different kinds of additives that regulate the microbial community in feed include probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host), prebiotics (ingredients that stimulate increased beneficial microbial activity in the digestive system in order to improve the health of the host) and phytobiotics (primary or secondary components of plants that contain bioactive compounds that exert a positive effect on the growth and health of animals). Phages may potentially provide an integrated solution to modulate the intestinal microbiome of chicken intestines, as they reduce specific pathogenic microbial populations, permitting the proliferation of beneficial microbiota. Studies have shown that the use of cocktails of phages, especially in high concentrations and with short lapses of time between exposure to the bacteria and treatment with phages, optimize the reduction of Salmonella in chickens. Each of these technologies has demonstrable positive effects on the health of the host and the reduction of the pathogen load in controlled assays.This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the role of the microbiota in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract, and discusses the usefulness of different strategies for its modulation to control pathogens, with a particular emphasis on bacteriophages.
Project description:One of the main challenges in understanding the composition of fecal microbiota is that it can consist of microbial mixtures originating from different gastrointestinal (GI) segments. Here, we addressed this challenge for broiler chicken feces using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with multivariate statistical analyses. Broiler feces were chosen because of easy sampling and the importance for pathogen transmission to the human food chain. Feces were sampled daily for 16 days from chickens with and without a feed structure-induced stimulation of the gastric barrier function. Overall, we found four dominant microbial phylogroups in the feces. Two of the phylogroups were related to clostridia, one to lactobacilli, and one to Escherichia/Shigella. The relative composition of these phylogroups showed apparent stochastic temporal fluctuations in feces. Analyses of dissected chickens at the end of the experiment, however, showed that the two clostridial phylogroups were correlated to the microbiota in the cecum/colon and the small intestine, while the upper gut (crop and gizzard) microbiota was correlated to the lactobacillus phylogroup. In addition, chickens with a stimulated gizzard also showed less of the proximate GI dominating bacterial group in the feces, supporting the importance of the gastric barrier function. In conclusion, our results suggest that GI origin is a main determinant for the chicken fecal microbiota composition. This knowledge will be important for future understanding of factors affecting shedding of both harmful and beneficial gastrointestinal bacteria through feces.
Project description:Bioavailable levels of trace metals, such as iron and zinc, for bacterial growth in nature are sufficiently low that most microbes have evolved high-affinity binding and transport systems. The microbe Campylobacter jejuni lives in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, the principal source of human infection. A high-affinity ABC transporter for zinc uptake is required for Campylobacter survival in chicken intestines in the presence of a normal microbiota but not when chickens are raised with a limited microbiota. Mass spectrometric analysis of cecal contents revealed the presence of numerous zinc-binding proteins in conventional chicks compared to the number in limited-microbiota chicks. The presence of a microbiota results in the production of host zinc-binding enzymes, causing a growth restriction for bacteria that lack the high-affinity zinc transporter. Such transporters in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria make them good targets for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.Zinc is an essential trace element for the growth of most organisms. Quantities of zinc inside cells are highly regulated, as too little zinc does not support growth, while too much zinc is toxic. Numerous bacterial cells require zinc uptake systems for growth and virulence. The work presented here demonstrates that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract reduces the quantity of zinc. Without a high-affinity zinc transporter, Campylobacter jejuni, a commensal organism of chickens, is unable to replicate or colonize the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first demonstration of zinc competition between microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of a host. These results could have profound implications in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in our understanding of host metabolism and the microbiota.
Project description:To gain better understanding of the distributions of the culturable Lactobacillus species in the chicken intestinal tract, we collected ceca, and distal ileum from 10 3-weeks-old broiler chickens. Lactobacillus strains from cecal lumen contents (M-CL), and those associated with mucosa of ceca (M-CM) and ileum (M-IM) were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar plates, and used for microbiota analysis. The total cecal content (T-CL) was also used directly for microbiota analysis. We purposefully focused on MRS-recovered populations to gain understanding of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus, since the culturability is an important phenotype in order to exploit the chicken gut microbiota as a resource for development of probiotics. The V1-V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene was amplified from genomic DNA samples, and the pooled amplicons were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing with paired-end read 300 cycle option. Among MRS groups, Firmicutes were significantly higher in M-IM and M-CL as compared to M-CM, whereas Proteobacteria were significantly higher in M-CM as compared to M-IM and M-CL at p < 0.05. Among Lactobacillus, L. salivarius (36%) and L. johnsonii (21%) were higher in M-IM as compared to M-CL (L. salivarius, 28%; L. johnsonii, 15%), and M-CM (L. salivarius, 20%; L. johnsonii, 11%). L. crispatus was found significantly higher in M-CL as compared to M-IM (p < 0.01) whereas L. gasseri was found significantly higher in M-IM as compared to M-CM (p < 0.05). L. aviarius, and L. fornicalis were only observed in T-CL. In summary, Lactobacillus populations recovered on MRS vary with different regions and locations in chicken GIT, which might indicate their distinct functional roles in different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) niches, and some species of Lactobacillus are not culturable on MRS agar media. This study is the first attempt to define culturable Lactobacillus subpopulations in the chicken intestinal tract comprehensively using 16S rRNA gene profiling, and the findings of this study will be used as a platform to develop a new strategy for isolation of effective Lactobacillus probiotic candidates based on comparative analyses of chicken gut microbiota.
Project description:The animal gastrointestinal tract houses a large microbial community, the gut microbiota, that confers many benefits to its host, such as protection from pathogens and provision of essential metabolites. Metagenomic approaches have defined the chicken fecal microbiota in other studies, but here, we wished to assess the correlation between the metagenome and the bacterial proteome in order to better understand the healthy chicken gut microbiota. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and metaproteomics analysis of fecal samples to determine microbial gut composition and protein expression. 16 rRNA gene sequencing analysis identified Clostridiales, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae species as the most abundant species in the gut. For metaproteomics analysis, peptides were generated by using the Fasp method and subsequently fractionated by strong anion exchanges. Metaproteomics analysis identified 3,673 proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins, 380 proteins belonged to Lactobacillus spp., 155 belonged to Clostridium spp., and 66 belonged to Streptococcus spp. The most frequently identified proteins were heat shock chaperones, including 349 GroEL proteins, from many bacterial species, whereas the most abundant enzymes were pyruvate kinases, as judged by the number of peptides identified per protein (spectral counting). Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed the functions and locations of the identified proteins. The findings of both metaproteomics and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses are discussed.