Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus causing chronic rhinosinusitis. Whole-genome sequencing determined the B. pseudomallei as sequence type (ST) 1381 and the S. aureus as ST8. B. pseudomallei possessed the blaOXA-59 gene. This study illustrates the potential emergence of B. pseudomallei in cases of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Project description:Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Resistance to gentamicin is generally a hallmark of B. pseudomallei, and gentamicin is a selective agent in media used for diagnosis of melioidosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence and mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility found in B. pseudomallei isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We performed multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility testing on 44 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates from melioidosis patients in Sarawak district hospitals. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify the mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility. A novel allelic-specific PCR was designed to differentiate gentamicin-sensitive isolates from wild-type B. pseudomallei. A reversion assay was performed to confirm the involvement of this mechanism in gentamicin susceptibility. A substantial proportion (86%) of B. pseudomallei clinical isolates in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, were found to be susceptible to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, a rare occurrence in other regions where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Gentamicin sensitivity was restricted to genetically related strains belonging to sequence type 881 or its single-locus variant, sequence type 997. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel nonsynonymous mutation within amrB, encoding an essential component of the AmrAB-OprA multidrug efflux pump. We confirmed the role of this mutation in conferring aminoglycoside and macrolide sensitivity by reversion of this mutation to the wild-type sequence. Our study demonstrates that alternative B. pseudomallei selective media without gentamicin are needed for accurate melioidosis laboratory diagnosis in Sarawak. This finding may also have implications for environmental sampling of other locations to test for B. pseudomallei endemicity.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease of high mortality in humans and animals. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a popular and portable genotyping method that has been used extensively to characterise the genetic diversity of B. pseudomallei populations. MLST has been central to our understanding of the underlying phylogeographical signal present in the B. pseudomallei genome, revealing distinct populations on both the intra- and the inter-continental level. However, due to its high recombination rate, it is possible for B. pseudomallei isolates to share the same multilocus sequence type (ST) despite being genetically and geographically distinct, with two cases of 'ST homoplasy' recently reported between Cambodian and Australian B. pseudomallei isolates. This phenomenon can dramatically confound conclusions about melioidosis transmission patterns and source attribution, a critical issue for bacteria such as B. pseudomallei that are of concern due to their potential for use as bioweapons. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing to identify the first reported instances of intracontinental ST homoplasy, which involved ST-722 and ST-804 B. pseudomallei isolates separated by large geographical distances. In contrast, a third suspected homoplasy case was shown to be a true long-range (460?km) dispersal event between a remote Australian island and the Australian mainland. Our results show that, whilst a highly useful and portable method, MLST can occasionally lead to erroneous conclusions about isolate origin and disease attribution. In cases where a shared ST is identified between geographically distant locales, whole-genome sequencing should be used to resolve strain origin.
Project description:We used whole-genome sequencing to evaluate 69 independent colonies of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from seven body sites of a patient with acute disseminated melioidosis. Fourteen closely related genotypes were found, providing evidence for the rapid in vivo diversification of B. pseudomallei after inoculation and systemic spread.
Project description:Although PacBio third-generation sequencers have improved the read lengths of genome sequencing which facilitates the assembly of complete genomes, no study has reported success in using PacBio data alone to completely sequence a two-chromosome bacterial genome from a single library in a single run. Previous studies using earlier versions of sequencing chemistries have at most been able to finish bacterial genomes containing only one chromosome with de novo assembly. In this study, we compared the robustness of PacBio RS II, using one SMRT cell and the latest P6-C4 chemistry, with Illumina HiSeq 1500 in sequencing the genome of Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium which contains two large circular chromosomes, very high G+C content of 68-69%, highly repetitive regions and substantial genomic diversity, and represents one of the largest and most complex bacterial genomes sequenced, using a reference genome generated by hybrid assembly using PacBio and Illumina datasets with subsequent manual validation. Results showed that PacBio data with de novo assembly, but not Illumina, was able to completely sequence the B. pseudomallei genome without any gaps or mis-assemblies. The two large contigs of the PacBio assembly aligned unambiguously to the reference genome, sharing >99.9% nucleotide identities. Conversely, Illumina data assembled using three different assemblers resulted in fragmented assemblies (201-366 contigs), sharing only 92.2-100% and 92.0-100% nucleotide identities to chromosomes I and II reference sequences, respectively, with no indication that the B. pseudomallei genome consisted of two chromosomes with four copies of ribosomal operons. Among all assemblies, the PacBio assembly recovered the highest number of core and virulence proteins, and housekeeping genes based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST). Most notably, assembly solely based on PacBio outperformed even hybrid assembly using both PacBio and Illumina datasets. Hybrid approach generated only 74 contigs, while the PacBio data alone with de novo assembly achieved complete closure of the two-chromosome B. pseudomallei genome without additional costly bench work and further sequencing. PacBio RS II using P6-C4 chemistry is highly robust and cost-effective and should be the platform of choice in sequencing bacterial genomes, particularly for those that are well-known to be difficult-to-sequence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The bacterial biothreat agents Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the cause of glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Genomic and epidemiological studies have shown that B. mallei is a recently emerged, host restricted clone of B. pseudomallei. RESULTS:Using bacteriophage-mediated immunoscreening we identified genes expressed in vivo during experimental equine glanders infection. A family of immunodominant antigens were identified that share protein domain architectures with hemagglutinins and invasins. These have been designated Burkholderia Hep_Hag autotransporter (BuHA) proteins. A total of 110/207 positive clones (53%) of a B. mallei expression library screened with sera from two infected horses belonged to this family. This contrasted with 6/189 positive clones (3%) of a B. pseudomallei expression library screened with serum from 21 patients with culture-proven melioidosis. CONCLUSION:Members of the BuHA proteins are found in other Gram-negative bacteria and have been shown to have important roles related to virulence. Compared with other bacterial species, the genomes of both B. mallei and B. pseudomallei contain a relative abundance of this family of proteins. The domain structures of these proteins suggest that they function as multimeric surface proteins that modulate interactions of the cell with the host and environment. Their effect on the cellular immune response to B. mallei and their potential as diagnostics for glanders requires further study.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative saprophytic bacillus and the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a disease of public-health importance throughout Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Infection can occur in humans and a wide array of animal species, though zoonotic transmission and case clusters are rare. Despite its highly plastic genome and extensive strain diversity, fine-scale investigations into the population structure of B. pseudomallei indicate there is limited geographical dispersal amongst sequence types (STs). In the 'Top End' of northern Australia, five STs comprise 90?% of the overall abundance, the most prevalent and widespread of which is ST-109. In May 2016, ST-109 was implicated in two fatal cases of melioidosis in juvenile saltwater crocodiles at a wildlife park near Darwin, Australia. To determine the probable source of infection, we sampled the crocodile enclosures and analysed the phylogenetic relatedness of crocodile and culture-positive ST-109 environmental park isolates against an additional 135 ST-109 B. pseudomallei isolates from the Top End. Collectively, our whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and pathology findings confirmed B. pseudomallei detected in the hatchling incubator as the likely source of infection, with zero SNPs identified between clinical and environmental isolates. Our results also demonstrate little variation across the ST-109 genome, with SNPs in recombinogenic regions and one suspected case of ST homoplasy accounting for nearly all observed diversity. Collectively, this study supports the use of WGS for outbreak source attribution in highly recombinogenic pathogens, and confirms the epidemiological and phylogenetic insights that can be gained from high-resolution sequencing platforms.
Project description:Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has become an important clinical threat, especially in Northern Australia and Southeast Asia. However, the genome information on this pathogen is limited. B. pseudomallei isolates identified from bloodstream infections from inpatients were subjected to whole-genome sequencing by IonTorrent PGM and MinION Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies. Highly accurate complete genomes of two strains, VB3253 and VB2514, were obtained by a hybrid genome assembly method using both short and long DNA reads. Both isolates carried blaPenI and carbapenemase-encoding blaOXA-57 genes, although the isolates were susceptible to imipenem by E-test method with MIC 1 ?g/mL. Multiple IS family transposases specific for all non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNBs)-especially IS3 and IS5, which facilitate mobilization of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes-were carried in these genomes. This further adds to the complexity of gene transmission. These IS families were identified only upon hybrid genome assembly and would otherwise be missed.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease for which there is no vaccine. B. pseudomallei is listed as a tier 1 select agent, and as current therapeutic options are limited due to its natural resistance to most antibiotics, the development of new antimicrobial therapies is imperative. To identify drug targets and better understand the complex B. pseudomallei genome, we sought a genome-wide approach to identify lethal gene targets. As B. pseudomallei has an unusually large genome spread over two chromosomes, an extensive screen was required to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Here we describe transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) of a library of over 10(6) transposon insertion mutants, which provides the level of genome saturation required to identify essential genes. Using this technique, we have identified a set of 505 genes that are predicted to be essential in B. pseudomallei K96243. To validate our screen, three genes predicted to be essential, pyrH, accA, and sodB, and a gene predicted to be nonessential, bpss0370, were independently investigated through the generation of conditional mutants. The conditional mutants confirmed the TraDIS predictions, showing that we have generated a list of genes predicted to be essential and demonstrating that this technique can be used to analyze complex genomes and thus be more widely applied. IMPORTANCE:Burkholderia pseudomallei is a lethal human pathogen that is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and has limited treatment options due to an unusually high natural resistance to most antibiotics. We have identified a set of genes that are required for bacterial growth and thus are excellent candidates against which to develop potential novel antibiotics. To validate our approach, we constructed four mutants in which gene expression can be turned on and off conditionally to confirm that these genes are required for the bacteria to survive.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei is not represented in the current version of Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. A total of 66 isolates of B. pseudomallei, including 30 clinical isolates collected from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH, n = 27) and Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH, n = 3), and 36 isolates of genetically confirmed strains, including 13 from clinical samples and 23 from environmental samples, collected from southern Taiwan were included in this study. All these isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. Among the 30 isolates initially identified as B. pseudomallei by conventional identification methods, one was identified as B. cepacia complex (NTUH) and three were identified as B. putida (PUMCH) by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system misidentified 62 genetically confirmed B. pseudomallei isolates as B. thailandensis or Burkholderia species (score values, 1.803-2.063) when the currently available database (DB 5627) was used. However, using a newly created MALDI-TOF MS database (including B. pseudomallei NTUH-3 strain), all isolates were correctly identified as B. pseudomallei (score values >2.000, 100%). An additional 60 isolates of genetically confirmed B. cepacia complex and B. putida were also evaluated by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system using the newly created database and none of these isolates were identified as B. pseudomallei. MALDI-TOF MS is a versatile and robust tool for the rapid identification of B. pseudomallei using the enhanced database.