Project description:Transcriptome profiles for Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild type strain and two ethanol-adapted strains, E50A and E50C were generated to gain insights into ethanol tolerance. Details of the strains have been described, Shao X., et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2011) 92:641–652. Overall design: Duplicate fermentations using MTC medium were conducted for Clostridium thermocellum strains, ATCC 27405 wild-type; ethanol adapted strain E50A (adapted to grow in presence of up to 50 g/L ethanol on Avicel); and ethanol adapted strain E50C (adapted to grow in presence of up to 50 g/L ethanol on cellobiose). These strains have been described previously by Shao X., et al Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2011) 92:641–652. A fifty two array study using total RNA processed from fermenation cultures of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and ethanol adapted strains E50C and E50A, which were shocked with either 10 or 40 g/L ethanol. Cells were harvested immediately after, 15 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours after ethanol shock.
Project description:Background: The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. Results: A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of ~40% of genes (~1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome) during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i) modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii) enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense the oligo-saccharide hydrolysis products, and nutrient gradients generated through the action of cell-free cellulosomes and, (iii) increase cellular motility for potentially orienting the cells’ movement towards positive environmental signals leading to nutrient sources. Such a coordinated cellular strategy would increase its chances of survival in natural ecosystems where feast and famine conditions are frequently encountered. Total RNA was extracted from the cell pellets and the reverse transcribed cDNA was hybridized to oligo-arrays containing duplicated probes representing ~90% of the annotated ORFs in C. thermocellum ATCC27405 genome.Dual-channel dye swap experimental design was used to analyze the time-course of gene expression during cellulose fermentation using two biological replicate fermentation. The 6hr sample as the reference, to which all other time-point samples (8, 10, 12, 14, 16hr) were compared.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium that ferments cellulose into ethanol. It is a candidate industrial consolidated bioprocess (CBP) biocatalyst for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to yeast. Previous studies have investigated the membrane and protein composition of wild-type and ethanol tolerant strains, but relatively little is known about the genome changes associated with the ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain. In this study, C. thermocellum cultures were grown to mid-exponential phase and then either shocked with the supplementation of ethanol to a final concentration of 3.95 g/L (equal to 0.5% [v/v]) or were untreated. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, 240 min post-shock for multiple systems biology analyses. The addition of ethanol dramatically reduced the C. thermocellum growth and the final cell density was approximately half of the control fermentations, with concomitant reductions in substrate consumption in the treated cultures. The response of C. thermocellum to ethanol was dynamic and involved more than six hundred genes that were significantly and differentially expressed between the different conditions over time and every functional category was represented. Cellobiose was accumulated within the ethanol-shocked C. thermocellum cells, as well as the sugar phosphates such as fructose-6-P and cellobiose-6-P. The comparison and correlation among intracellular metabolites, proteomic and transcriptomics profiles as well as the ethanol effects on cellulosome, hydrogenase glycolysis and nitrogen metabolism are discussed, which led us to propose that C. thermocellum may utilize the nitrogen metabolism to bypass the arrested carbon metabolism in responding to ethanol stress shock, and the nitrogen metabolic pathway and redox balance may be the key target for improving ethanol tolerance and production in C. thermocellum. Overall design: A thirty array study using total RNA recovered from wild-type cultures of Clostridium thermocellum at different time points of 0, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-inoculation with 3.95 g/L [0.5% (v/v)] treatment compred to that of control without ethanol supplementation. Two biological replicates for treatment and control condition.