Project description:Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) is a high-throughput method coupling transposon mutagenesis with short-fragment DNA sequencing. It is commonly used to identify essential genes. Single gene deletion libraries are considered the gold standard for identifying essential genes. Currently, the TraDIS method has not been benchmarked against such libraries, and therefore, it remains unclear whether the two methodologies are comparable. To address this, a high-density transposon library was constructed in Escherichia coli K-12. Essential genes predicted from sequencing of this library were compared to existing essential gene databases. To decrease false-positive identification of essential genes, statistical data analysis included corrections for both gene length and genome length. Through this analysis, new essential genes and genes previously incorrectly designated essential were identified. We show that manual analysis of TraDIS data reveals novel features that would not have been detected by statistical analysis alone. Examples include short essential regions within genes, orientation-dependent effects, and fine-resolution identification of genome and protein features. Recognition of these insertion profiles in transposon mutagenesis data sets will assist genome annotation of less well characterized genomes and provides new insights into bacterial physiology and biochemistry.IMPORTANCE Incentives to define lists of genes that are essential for bacterial survival include the identification of potential targets for antibacterial drug development, genes required for rapid growth for exploitation in biotechnology, and discovery of new biochemical pathways. To identify essential genes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a transposon mutant library of unprecedented density. Initial automated analysis of the resulting data revealed many discrepancies compared to the literature. We now report more extensive statistical analysis supported by both literature searches and detailed inspection of high-density TraDIS sequencing data for each putative essential gene for the E. coli model laboratory organism. This paper is important because it provides a better understanding of the essential genes of E. coli, reveals the limitations of relying on automated analysis alone, and provides a new standard for the analysis of TraDIS data.
Project description:Escherichia coli (E. coli) amine oxidase (ECAO) encoded by tynA gene has been one of the model enzymes to study the mechanism of oxidative deamination of amines to the corresponding aldehydes by amine oxidases. The biological roles of ECAO have been less addressed. Therefore we have constructed a gene deletion Escherichia coli K-12 strain, E. coli tynA-, and used the microarray technique to address its function by comparing the total RNA gene expression to the one of the wt. Our results suggest that tynA is a reserve gene for stringent environmental conditions and its gene product ECAO a growth advantage compared to other bacteria due to H2O2 production. Overall design: The effect of deleting the expression of E. Coli amine oxidase by deleting tynA gene to the expression of other genes was done by comparing the knock out strain to wild type strain in different time points.
Project description:The EcoGene database provides a set of gene and protein sequences derived from the genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. EcoGene is a source of re-annotated sequences for the SWISS-PROT and Colibri databases. EcoGene is used for genetic and physical map compilations in collaboration with the Coli Genetic Stock Center. The EcoGene12 release includes 4293 genes. EcoGene12 differs from the GenBank annotation of the complete genome sequence in several ways, including (i) the revision of 706 predicted or confirmed gene start sites, (ii) the correction or hypothetical reconstruction of 61 frame-shifts caused by either sequence error or mutation, (iii) the reconstruction of 14 protein sequences interrupted by the insertion of IS elements, and (iv) pre-dictions that 92 genes are partially deleted gene fragments. A literature survey identified 717 proteins whose N-terminal amino acids have been verified by sequencing. 12 446 cross-references to 6835 literature citations and s are provided. EcoGene is accessible at a new website: http://bmb.med.miami.edu/EcoGene/EcoWeb. Users can search and retrieve individual EcoGene GenePages or they can download large datasets for incorporation into database management systems, facilitating various genome-scale computational and functional analyses.
Project description:Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli ATCC 10798. E. coli ATCC 10798 is a K-12 strain, one of the most well-studied model microorganisms. The size of the genome was 4,685,496 bp, with a G+C content of 50.70%. This assembly consists of 62 contigs and the F plasmid.
Project description:Deuterium isotope labelling is important for structural biology methods such as neutron protein crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and small angle neutron scattering studies of proteins. Deuterium is a natural low abundance stable hydrogen isotope that in high concentrations negatively affect growth of cells. The generation time for Escherichia coli K-12 in deuterated medium is substantially increased compared to cells grown in hydrogenated (protiated) medium. By using a mutagenesis plasmid based approach we have isolated an E. coli strain derived from E. coli K-12 substrain MG1655 that show increased fitness in deuterium based growth media, without general adaptation to media components. By whole-genome sequencing we identified the genomic changes in the obtained strain and show that it can be used for recombinant production of perdeuterated proteins in amounts typically needed for structural biology studies.
Project description:Escherichia coli strain K-12 substrain HMS174 is an engineered descendant of the E. coli K-12 wild-type strain. Like its ancestor, it is an important organism in biotechnological research and is used in fermentation processes for heterologous protein production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli HMS174 (ATCC 47011).
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in a Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 ?fnr mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. The mutations engineered into this strain produce a strain lacking the FNR protein. WT strains were grown under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. A six chip study using total RNA recovered from two separate cultures of Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 WT (aerobic and anaerobic) and two separate cultures of the ?fnr mutant strain (anaerobic). Each chip measures the expression level of 4,661 genes from Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 with eight 60-mer probes per gene, with each probe represented twice on the array.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in a Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 ∆arcA mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. The mutations engineered into this strain produce a strain lacking the ArcA protein. The results are further described in the manuscript The response regulator ArcA uses a diverse binding site architechture to globally regulate carbon oxidation in E. coli A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 WT and three separate cultures of the ∆arcA mutant strain. Each chip measures the expression level of 4,661 genes from Escherichia coli MG1655 K-12 with eight 60-mer probes per gene, with each probe represented twice on the array.
Project description:Escherichia coli strain C600 is a prototypical K-12 derived laboratory strain which has been broadly used for molecular microbiology and bacterial physiology studies since its isolation in 1954. Here, we present the closed genome sequence of E. coli strain C600, retrieved from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 23724).
Project description:In bacteria, mechanisms that incorporate DNA into a genome without strand-transfer proteins such as RecA play a major role in generating novelty by horizontal gene transfer. We describe a new illegitimate recombination event in Escherichia coli K-12: RecA-independent homologous replacements, with very large (megabase-length) donor patches replacing recipient DNA. A previously uncharacterized gene (yjiP) increases the frequency of RecA-independent replacement recombination. To show this, we used conjugal DNA transfer, combining a classical conjugation donor, HfrH, with modern genome engineering methods and whole genome sequencing analysis to enable interrogation of genetic dependence of integration mechanisms and characterization of recombination products. As in classical experiments, genomic DNA transfer begins at a unique position in the donor, entering the recipient via conjugation; antibiotic resistance markers are then used to select recombinant progeny. Different configurations of this system were used to compare known mechanisms for stable DNA incorporation, including homologous recombination, F'-plasmid formation, and genome duplication. A genome island of interest known as the immigration control region was specifically replaced in a minority of recombinants, at a frequency of 3 X 10(-12) CFU/recipient per hour.