Project description:Several approaches were used to construct a complete NotI restriction enzyme cleavage map of the genome of Escherichia coli MG1655. The approaches included use of transposable element insertions that created auxotrophic mutations and introduced a NotI site into the genome, hybridization of NotI fragments to the ordered lambda library constructed by Kohara et al. (BioTechniques 10:474-477, 1991), Southern blotting of NotI digests with cloned genes as probes, and analysis of the known E. coli DNA sequence for NotI sites. In all, 22 NotI cleavage sites were mapped along with 26 transposon insertions. These sites were localized to clones in the lambda library and, when possible, sequenced genes. The map was compared with that of strain EMG2, a wild-type E. coli K-12 strain, and several differences were found, including a region of about 600 kb with an altered restriction pattern and an additional fragment in MG1655. Comparison of MG1655 with other strains revealed minor differences but indicated that this map was representative of that for many commonly used E. coli K-12 strains.
Project description:An SfiI restriction map of Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 is presented. The map contains thirty-one cleavage sites separating fragments ranging in size from 407 kb to 3.7 kb. Several techniques were used in the construction of this map, including CHEF pulsed field gel electrophoresis; physical analysis of a set of twenty-six auxotrophic transposon insertions; correlation with the restriction map of Kohara and coworkers using the commercially available E. coli Gene Mapping Membranes; analysis of publicly available sequence information; and correlation of the above data with the combined genetic and physical map developed by Rudd, et al. The combination of these techniques has yielded a map in which all but one site can be localized within a range of +/- 2 kb, and over half the sites can be localized precisely by sequence data. Two sites present in the EcoSeq5 sequence database are not cleaved in MG1655 and four sites are noted to be sensitive to methylation by the dcm methylase. This map, combined with the NotI physical map of MG1655, can aid in the rapid, precise mapping of several different types of genetic alterations, including transposon mediated mutations and other insertions, inversions, deletions and duplications.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of base-specific cleavage products is an efficient, highly accurate tool for the detection of single base sequence variations. We describe the first application of this comparative sequencing strategy for automated high-throughput mutation detection in microbial genomes. The method was applied to identify DNA sequence changes that occurred in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 during laboratory adaptive evolution to new optimal growth phenotypes. Experiments were based on a genome-scale in silico model of E. coli metabolism and growth. This model computes several phenotypic functions and predicts optimal growth rates. To identify mutations underlying a 40-d adaptive laboratory evolution on glycerol, we resequenced 4.4% of the E. coli-K12 MG1655 genome in several clones picked at the end of the evolutionary process. The 1.54-Mb screen was completed in 13.5 h. This resequencing study is the largest reported by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to date. Ten mutations in 40 clones and three deviations from the reference sequence were detected. Mutations were predominantly found within the glycerol kinase gene. Functional characterization of the most prominent mutation shows its metabolic impact on the process of adaptive evolution. All sequence changes were independently confirmed by genotyping and Sanger-sequencing. We demonstrate that comparative sequencing by base-specific cleavage and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is an automated, fast, and highly accurate alternative to capillary sequencing.