Project description:1. The extracellular enzymes present in the culture filtrates of Coniophora cerebella grown on various carbohydrate carbon sources were investigated. Enzymes that degraded cellulose derivatives, hemicellulose fractions, starch, laminarin, pectin and several oligosaccharides were detected. 2. All the polysaccharide-degrading activities were adaptive except for that acting on laminarin. 3. The culture filtrates degraded native cellulose to only a very limited extent. 4. The hemicellulase activity included enzymes acting on all the major components of wood hemicellulose. 5. The main starch-degrading enzyme was a glucoamylase. 6. Laminarin-degrading activity was produced when cellulose, hemicellulose or starch was used as carbon source for the fungus and it may be involved in the re-utilization of hyphal carbon or of a reserve polysaccharide synthesized during active growth of the organism.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The microbial conversion of plant biomass to valuable products in a consolidated bioprocess could greatly increase the ecologic and economic impact of a biorefinery. Current strategies for hydrolyzing plant material mostly rely on the external application of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Alternatively, production organisms can be engineered to secrete CAZymes to reduce the reliance on externally added enzymes. Plant-pathogenic fungi have a vast repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes to sustain their lifestyle, but expression of the corresponding genes is usually highly regulated and restricted to the pathogenic phase. Here, we present a new strategy in using the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis for the degradation of plant cell wall components by activating its intrinsic enzyme potential during axenic growth. This fungal model organism is fully equipped with hydrolytic enzymes, and moreover, it naturally produces value-added substances, such as organic acids and biosurfactants. To achieve the deregulated expression of hydrolytic enzymes during the industrially relevant yeast-like growth in axenic culture, the native promoters of the respective genes were replaced by constitutively active synthetic promoters. This led to an enhanced conversion of xylan, cellobiose, and carboxymethyl cellulose to fermentable sugars. Moreover, a combination of strains with activated endoglucanase and β-glucanase increased the release of glucose from carboxymethyl cellulose and regenerated amorphous cellulose, suggesting that mixed cultivations could be a means for degrading more complex substrates in the future. In summary, this proof of principle demonstrates the potential applicability of activating the expression of native CAZymes from phytopathogens in a biocatalytic process. IMPORTANCE:This study describes basic experiments that aim at the degradation of plant cell wall components by the smut fungus Ustilago maydis As a plant pathogen, this fungus contains a set of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that may be suited for biomass degradation. However, its hydrolytic enzymes are specifically expressed only during plant infection. Here, we provide the proof of principle that these intrinsic enzymes can be synthetically activated during the industrially relevant yeast-like growth. The fungus is known to naturally synthesize valuable compounds, such as itaconate or glycolipids. Therefore, it could be suited for use in a consolidated bioprocess in which more complex and natural substrates are simultaneously converted to fermentable sugars and to value-added compounds in the future.
Project description:Despite the threat of Fusarium dieback posed due to ambrosia fungi cultured by ambrosia beetles such as Euwallacea spp., the wood-degradation mechanisms utilized by ambrosia fungi are not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes of the microbial community from the Ficus tree tunnel excavated by Euwallacea interjectus and isolated the cellulose-degrading fungus, Fusarium spp. strain EI, by enrichment culture with carboxymethyl cellulose as the sole carbon source. The cellulolytic enzyme secreted by the fungus was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris, and its enzymatic properties were characterized. The cellulolytic enzyme, termed FsXEG12A, could hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, xyloglucan, lichenan, and glucomannan, indicating that the broad substrate specificity of FsXEG12A could be beneficial for degrading complex wood components such as cellulose, xyloglucan, and galactoglucomannan in angiosperms. Inhibition of FsXEG12A function is, thus, an effective target for Fusarium dieback caused by Euwallacea spp.
Project description:Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), a secreted flavocytochrome produced by a number of wood-degrading fungi, was detected in the culture supernatant of a biotechnologically important strain of Cerrena unicolor grown in a modified cellulose-based liquid medium. The enzyme was purified as two active fractions: CuCDH-FAD (flavin domain) (1.51-fold) with recovery of 8.35 % and CuCDH (flavo-heme enzyme) (21.21-fold) with recovery of 73.41 %. As CDH from other wood-rotting fungi, the intact form of cellobiose dehydrogenase of C. unicolor is a monomeric protein containing one flavin and one heme b with molecular mass 97 kDa and pI?=?4.55. The enzyme is glycosylated (8.2 %) mainly with mannose and glucosamine residues. Moreover, the cellobiose dehydrogenase gene cdh1 and its corresponding cDNA from the fungus C. unicolor were isolated, cloned, and characterized. The 2316-bp full-length cDNA of cdh1 encoded a mature CDH protein containing 771 amino acids preceded by a signal peptide consisting of 18 amino acids. Moreover, both active fractions were characterized in terms of kinetics, temperature and pH optima, and antioxidant properties.
Project description:Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enzymatic hydrolysis is a key step in the conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and high-value chemicals. However, current enzyme preparations from mesophilic fungi are deficient in their thermostability and biomass-hydrolyzing efficiency at high temperatures. Thermophilic fungi represent promising sources of thermostable and highly active enzymes for improving the biomass-to-sugar conversion process. Here we present a comprehensive study on the lignocellulosic biomass-degrading ability and enzyme system of thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea N12 and the application of its enzymes in the synergistic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. RESULTS:Malbranchea cinnamomea N12 was capable of utilizing untreated wheat straw to produce high levels of xylanases and efficiently degrading lignocellulose under thermophilic conditions. Temporal analysis of the wheat straw-induced secretome revealed that M. cinnamomea N12 successively degraded the lignocellulosic polysaccharides through sequential secretion of enzymes targeting xylan and cellulose. Xylanase-enriched cocktail from M. cinnamomea N12 was more active on native and alkali?pretreated wheat straw than the commercial xylanases from Trichoderma reesei over temperatures ranging from 40 to 75 °C. Integration of M. cinnamomea N12 enzymes with the commercial cellulase preparation increased the glucose and xylose yields of alkali?pretreated wheat straw by 32 and 166%, respectively, with pronounced effects at elevated temperature. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated the remarkable xylanase-producing ability and strategy of sequential lignocellulose breakdown of M. cinnamomea N12. A new process for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass was proposed, comprising thermophilic enzymolysis by enzymes of M. cinnamomea N12 followed with mesophilic enzymolysis by commercial cellulases. Developing M. cinnamomea N12 as platforms for thermophilic enzyme mixture production will provide new perspectives for improved conversion yields for current biomass saccharification schemes.
Project description:Background:Lignocellulose is the most abundant and renewable biomass resource on the planet. Lignocellulose can be converted into biofuels and high-value compounds; however, its recalcitrance makes its breakdown a challenge. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) offer tremendous promise for the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Chaetomium thermophilum, having many LPMO-coding genes, is a dominant thermophilic fungus in cellulose-rich and self-heating habitats. This study explores the genome, secretomes and transcript levels of specific genes of C. thermophilum. Results:The genome of C. thermophilum encoded a comprehensive set of cellulose- and xylan-degrading enzymes, especially 18 AA9 LPMOs that belonged to different subfamilies. Extracellular secretomes showed that arabinose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) could specifically induce the secretion of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), especially AA9 LPMOs, by C. thermophilum under different carbon sources. Temporal analyses of secretomes and transcripts revealed that arabinose induced the secretion of xylanases by C. thermophilum, which was obviously different from other common filamentous fungi. MCC could efficiently induce the specific secretion of LPMO2s, possibly because the insert in loop3 on the substrate-binding surface of LPMO2s strengthened its binding capacity to cellulose. LPMO2s, cellobio hydrolases (CBHs) and cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) were cosecreted, forming an efficient cellulose degradation system of oxidases and hydrolases under thermophilic conditions. Conclusions:The specific expression of LPMO2s and cosecretion of hydrolases and oxidases by the thermophilic fungus C. thermophilum play an important role in cellulose degradation. This insight increases our understanding of the cellulose degradation under thermophilic conditions and may inspire the design of the optimal enzyme cocktails for more efficient exploration of biomass resources in industrial applications.
Project description:Wood-devastating insects utilize their symbiotic microbes with lignocellulose-degrading abilities to extract energy from recalcitrant woods. It is well known that free-living lignocellulose-degrading fungi secrete various carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) to degrade plant cell wall components, mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. However, CAZymes from insect-symbiotic fungi have not been well documented except for a few examples. In this study, an insect-associated fungus, Daldinia decipiens oita, was isolated as a potential symbiotic fungus of female Xiphydria albopicta captured from Hokkaido forest. This fungus was grown in seven different media containing a single carbon source, glucose, cellulose, xylan, mannan, pectin, poplar, or larch, and the secreted proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 128 CAZymes, including domains of 92 glycoside hydrolases, 15 carbohydrate esterases, 5 polysaccharide lyases, 17 auxiliary activities, and 11 carbohydrate-binding modules, were identified, and these are involved in degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose but not lignin. Together with the results of polysaccharide-degrading activity measurements, we concluded that D. decipiens oita tightly regulates the expression of these CAZymes in response to the tested plant cell wall materials. Overall, this study described the detailed proteomic approach of a woodwasp-associated fungus and revealed that the new isolate, D. decipiens oita, secretes diverse CAZymes to efficiently degrade lignocellulose in the symbiotic environment.IMPORTANCE Recent studies show the potential impacts of insect symbiont microbes on biofuel application with regard to their degradation capability of a recalcitrant plant cell wall. In this study, we describe a novel fungal isolate, D. decipiens oita, as a single symbiotic fungus from the Xiphydria woodwasp found in the northern forests of Japan. Our detailed secretome analyses of D. decipiens oita, together with activity measurements, reveal that this insect-associated fungus exhibits high and broad activities for plant cell wall material degradation, suggesting potential applications within the biomass conversion industry for plant mass degradation.
Project description:Background:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent redox enzymes that cleave recalcitrant biopolymers such as cellulose, chitin, starch and hemicelluloses. Although LPMOs receive ample interest in industry and academia, their reaction mechanism is not yet fully understood. Recent studies showed that H2O2 is a more efficient cosubstrate for the enzyme than O2, which could greatly affect the utilization of LPMOs in industrial settings. Results:We probe the reactivity of LPMO9C from the cellulose-degrading fungus Neurospora crassa with a turbidimetric assay using phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) as substrate and H2O2 as a cosubstrate. The measurements were also followed by continuous electrochemical H2O2 detection and LPMO reaction products were analysed by mass spectrometry. Different systems for the in situ generation of H2O2 and for the reduction of LPMO's active-site copper were employed, including glucose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and the routinely used reductant ascorbate. Conclusions:We found for all systems that the supply of H2O2 limited LPMO's cellulose depolymerization activity, which supports the function of H2O2 as the relevant cosubstrate. The turbidimetric assay allowed rapid determination of LPMO activity on a cellulosic substrate without the need for time-consuming and instrumentally elaborate analysis methods.
Project description:With the growing demand for fossil fuels and the severe energy crisis, lignocellulose is widely regarded as a promising cost-effective renewable resource for ethanol production, and the use of lignocellulose residues as raw material is remarkable. Polar organisms have important value in scientific research and development for their novelty, uniqueness and diversity.In this study, a fungus Aspergillus sydowii MS-19, with the potential for lignocellulose degradation was screened out and isolated from an Antarctic region. The growth profile of Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 was measured, revealing that Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 could utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Its ability to synthesize low-temperature lignin peroxidase (Lip) and manganese peroxidase (Mnp) enzymes was verified, and the properties of these enzymes were also investigated. High-throughput sequencing was employed to identify and characterize the transcriptome of Aspergillus sydowii MS-19. Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZyme)-annotated genes in Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 were compared with those in the brown-rot fungus representative species, Postia placenta and Penicillium decumbens. There were 701CAZymes annotated in Aspergillus sydowii MS-19, including 17 cellulases and 19 feruloyl esterases related to lignocellulose-degradation. Remarkably, one sequence annotated as laccase was obtained, which can degrade lignin. Three peroxidase sequences sharing a similar structure with typical lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase were also found and annotated as haem-binding peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase-peroxidase.In this study, the fungus Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 was isolated and shown to synthesize low-temperature lignin-degrading enzymes: lignin peroxidase (Lip) and manganese peroxidase (Mnp). These findings provide useful information to improve our understanding of low-temperature lignocellulosic enzyme production by polar microorganisms and to facilitate research and applications of the novel Antarctic Aspergillus sydowii strain MS-19 as a potential lignocellulosic enzyme source.