Project description:Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a mechanism that generates multiple mRNA isoforms with different 3'UTRs and/or coding sequences from a single gene. Here, using 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), we have systematically mapped cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in Drosophila melanogaster, expanding the total repertoire of PASs previously identified for the species, especially those located in A-rich genomic sequences. Cis-element analysis revealed distinct sequence motifs around fly PASs when compared to mammalian ones, including the greater enrichment of upstream UAUA elements and the less prominent presence of downstream UGUG elements. We found that over 75% of mRNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster undergo APA. The head tissue tends to use distal PASs when compared to the body, leading to preferential expression of APA isoforms with long 3'UTRs as well as with distal terminal exons. The distance between the APA sites and intron location of PAS are important parameters for APA difference between body and head, suggesting distinct PAS selection contexts. APA analysis of the RpII215C4 mutant strain, which harbors a mutant RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with a slower elongation rate, revealed that a 50% decrease in transcriptional elongation rate leads to a mild trend of more usage of proximal, weaker PASs, both in 3'UTRs and in introns, consistent with the "first come, first served" model of APA regulation. However, this trend was not observed in the head, suggesting a different regulatory context in neuronal cells. Together, our data expand the PAS collection for Drosophila melanogaster and reveal a tissue-specific effect of APA regulation by RNAPII elongation rate.
Project description:Alternative polyadenylation generates transcriptomic diversity, although the physiological impact and regulatory mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. The cell cycle kinase Polo is controlled by alternative polyadenylation in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), with critical physiological consequences. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanisms required for polo alternative polyadenylation. We identified a conserved upstream sequence element (USE) close to the polo proximal poly(A) signal. Transgenic flies without this sequence show incorrect selection of polo poly(A) signals with consequent downregulation of Polo expression levels and insufficient/defective activation of Polo kinetochore targets Mps1 and Aurora B. Deletion of the USE results in abnormal mitoses in neuroblasts, revealing a role for this sequence in vivo We found that Hephaestus binds to the USE RNA and that hephaestus mutants display defects in polo alternative polyadenylation concomitant with a striking reduction in Polo protein levels, leading to mitotic errors and aneuploidy. Bioinformatic analyses show that the USE is preferentially localized upstream of noncanonical polyadenylation signals in Drosophila melanogaster genes. Taken together, our results revealed the molecular mechanisms involved in polo alternative polyadenylation, with remarkable physiological functions in Polo expression and activity at the kinetochores, and disclosed a new in vivo function for USEs in Drosophila melanogaster.
Project description:We analyzed the usage and consequences of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) in Drosophila melanogaster by using >1 billion reads of stranded mRNA-seq across a variety of dissected tissues. Beyond demonstrating that a majority of fly transcripts are subject to APA, we observed broad trends for 3' untranslated region (UTR) shortening in the testis and lengthening in the central nervous system (CNS); the latter included hundreds of unannotated extensions ranging up to 18 kb. Extensive northern analyses validated the accumulation of full-length neural extended transcripts, and in situ hybridization indicated their spatial restriction to the CNS. Genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and transcription factors were preferentially subject to 3' UTR extensions. Motif analysis indicated enrichment of miRNA and RBP sites in the neural extensions, and their termini were enriched in canonical cis elements that promote cleavage and polyadenylation. Altogether, we reveal broad tissue-specific patterns of APA in Drosophila and transcripts with unprecedented 3' UTR length in the nervous system.
Project description:mRNA-associated processes and gene structure in eukaryotes are typically treated as separate research subjects. Here, we bridge this separation and leverage the extensive multidisciplinary work on Drosophila melanogaster to examine the roles that capping, splicing, cleavage/polyadenylation, and telescripting (i.e, the protection of nascent transcripts from premature cleavage/polyadenylation by the splicing factor U1) might play in shaping exon-intron architecture in protein-coding genes. Our findings suggest that the distance between subsequent internal 5' splice sites (5'ss) in Drosophila genes is constrained such that telescripting effects are maximized, in theory, and thus nascent transcripts are less vulnerable to premature termination. Exceptionally weak 5'ss and constraints on intron-exon size at the gene 5' end also indicate that capping might enhance the recruitment of U1 and, in turn, promote telescripting at this location. Finally, a positive correlation between last exon length and last 5'ss strength suggests that optimal donor splice sites in the proximity of the pre-mRNA tail may inhibit the processing of downstream polyadenylation signals more than weak donor splice sites do. These findings corroborate and build upon previous experimental and computational studies on Drosophila genes. They support the possibility, hitherto scantly explored, that mRNA-associated processes impose significant constraints on the evolution of eukaryotic gene structure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drosophila melanogaster has one of best-described transcriptomes of any multicellular organism. Nevertheless, the paucity of 3'-sequencing data in this species precludes comprehensive assessment of alternative polyadenylation (APA), which is subject to broad tissue-specific control. RESULTS:Here, we generate deep 3'-sequencing data from 23 developmental stages, tissues, and cell lines of D. melanogaster, yielding a comprehensive atlas of ~ 62,000 polyadenylated ends. These data broadly extend the annotated transcriptome, identify ~ 40,000 novel 3' termini, and reveal that two-thirds of Drosophila genes are subject to APA. Furthermore, we dramatically expand the numbers of genes known to be subject to tissue-specific APA, such as 3' untranslated region (UTR) lengthening in head and 3' UTR shortening in testis, and characterize new tissue and developmental 3' UTR patterns. Our thorough 3' UTR annotations permit reassessment of post-transcriptional regulatory networks, via conserved miRNA and RNA binding protein sites. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation and divergence of APA patterns, we generate developmental and tissue-specific 3'-seq libraries from Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila virilis. We document broadly analogous tissue-specific APA trends in these species, but also observe significant alterations in 3' end usage across orthologs. We exploit the population of functionally evolving poly(A) sites to gain clear evidence that evolutionary divergence in core polyadenylation signal (PAS) and downstream sequence element (DSE) motifs drive broad alterations in 3' UTR isoform expression across the Drosophila phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS:These data provide a critical resource for the Drosophila community and offer many insights into the complex control of alternative tissue-specific 3' UTR formation and its consequences for post-transcriptional regulatory networks.
Project description:H3K27me3 profiles using Cleavage under targets and Release using nuclease (Cut&Run) in control and KD Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. We examined the impact on chromatin profiles in Drosophila melanogaster ovaries in which the lid, the Sin3a, the Snr1 or the mod(mdg4) gene have been selectively knocked down by tissue-specific shRNA expression. We additionally explored H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 in control and dhd mutant ovaries either carrying or not a transgene. Overall design: Cut&Run was used to characterize either H3K27me3 or H3K9me3 profile in control, knockdown or mutant Drosophila melanogaster ovaries in duplicates or triplicates.
Project description:The urate oxidase (UO) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed during the third-instar larval and adult stages, exclusively within a subset of cells of the Malpighian tubules. The UO gene contains a 69-base-pair intron and encodes mature mRNAs of 1,224, 1,227, and 1,244 nucleotides, depending on the site of 3' endonucleolytic cleavage prior to polyadenylation. A direct repeat, 5'-AAGTGAGAGTGAT-3', is the proposed cis-regulatory element involved in 20-hydroxyecdysone repression of the UO gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of UO of D. melanogaster, rat, mouse, and pig and uricase II of soybean show 32 to 38% identity, with 22% of amino acid residues identical in all species. With use of P-element-mediated germ line transformation, 826 base pairs 5' and approximately 1,200 base pairs 3' of the D. melanogaster UO transcribed region contain all of the cis elements allowing for appropriate temporal regulation and Malpighian tubule-specific expression of the UO gene.
Project description:Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical 'translation factors'. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation. The collection comprises 43 initiation factors, 12 elongation factors, 3 release factors and 6 recycling factors, totaling 64 of which 55 are cytoplasmic and 9 are mitochondrial. We also provide an overview of notable findings and particular insights derived from Drosophila about these factors. This catalog, together with the incorporation of the improved nomenclature and GO annotation into FlyBase, will greatly facilitate access to information about the functional roles of these important proteins.