Project description:CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein.
Project description:We confirmed that common CREBBP mutations in human FL result in reduced acetyltransferase activity of the protein, and modeled this loss of function by B-cell-specific deletion of one or both alleles of Crebbp in transgenic mouse models. We show that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development, and provide the first evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp inactivation can cooperate with Bcl2 over-expression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B-cells we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the regulatory regions of these genes. In contrast, B-cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions that were enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs and Myc binding. These transgenic models therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence, and a potential role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. Overall design: B-cells were isolated from the spleens of 3 mice per strain by magnetic bead selection and interrogated by gene expression microarray
Project description:The diffuse variant of follicular lymphoma (dFL) is a rare variant of FL lacking t(14;18) that was first described in 2009. In this study, we use a comprehensive approach to define unifying pathologic and genetic features through gold-standard pathologic review, FISH, SNP-microarray, and next-generation sequencing of 16 cases of dFL. We found unique morphologic features, including interstitial sclerosis, microfollicle formation, and rounded nuclear cytology, confirmed absence of t(14;18) and recurrent deletion of 1p36, and showed a novel association with deletion/CN-LOH of 16p13 (inclusive of CREBBP, CIITA, and SOCS1). Mutational profiling demonstrated near-uniform mutations in CREBBP and STAT6, with clonal dominance of CREBBP, among other mutations typical of germinal-center B-cell lymphomas. Frequent CREBBP and CIITA codeletion/mutation suggested a mechanism for immune evasion, while subclonal STAT6 activating mutations with concurrent SOCS1 loss suggested a mechanism of BCL-xL/BCL2L1 upregulation in the absence of BCL2 rearrangements. A review of the literature showed significant enrichment for 16p13 and 1p36 loss/CN-LOH, STAT6 mutation, and CREBBP and STAT6 comutation in dFL, as compared with conventional FL. With this comprehensive approach, our study demonstrates confirmatory and novel genetic associations that can aid in the diagnosis and subclassification of this rare type of lymphoma.
Project description:Inactivating mutations of the CREBBP and EP300 acetyltransferases are among the most common genetic alterations in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Here, we examined the relationship between these two enzymes in germinal center (GC) B cells, the normal counterpart of FL and DLBCL, and in lymphomagenesis by using conditional GC-directed deletion mouse models targeting Crebbp or Ep300. We found that CREBBP and EP300 modulate common as well as distinct transcriptional programs implicated in separate anatomic and functional GC compartments. Consistently, deletion of Ep300 but not Crebbp impaired the fitness of GC B cells in vivo. Combined loss of Crebbp and Ep300 completely abrogated GC formation, suggesting that these proteins partially compensate for each other through common transcriptional targets. This synthetic lethal interaction was retained in CREBBP-mutant DLBCL cells and could be pharmacologically targeted with selective small molecule inhibitors of CREBBP and EP300 function. These data provide proof-of-principle for the clinical development of EP300-specific inhibitors in FL and DLBCL.
Project description:Inactivating mutations of the gene encoding for the CREBBP acetyltransferase are highly frequent in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL, 30% of cases) and follicular lymphoma (FL, 60% of cases), the two most common cancers derived from the germinal-center (GC). However, the role of CREBBP inactivation in lymphomagenesis remains unclear. Using functional epigenomics and mouse genetics, here we define the program modulated by CREBBP in primary human GC B cells and show that CREBBP regulates enhancer/super-enhancer networks, with specific roles in GC/post-GC cell fate decisions. Conditional GC-specific deletion of Crebbp in the mouse perturbs the expression of a limited set of genes involved in the regulation of signal transduction (BCR, TLR and CD40), lineage specification (NF-κB and BCL6) and terminal B cell differentiation (PRDM1, IRF4). Consistently, Crebbp-deficient B cells exhibit proliferative advantage and show impaired plasma cell differentiation. While GC-specific loss of Crebbp was not sufficient to initiate malignant transformation, compound Crebbp-haploinsufficient/BCL2-transgenic mice, mimicking the genetics ofFL and DLBCL, display an increased incidence of clonal lymphoid malignancies recapitulating the features of the human diseases. These findings establish CREBBPas a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in GC B cells and provide insights into the mechanisms and targets by which loss of CREBBP contributes to lymphomagenesis. Overall design: ChIP-seq analysis of CREBBP bound regions and H3K27Ac in purified human germinal center B cells.
Project description:Inactivating mutations of the gene encoding for the CREBBP acetyltransferase are highly frequent in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL, 30% of cases) and follicular lymphoma (FL, 60% of cases), the two most common cancers derived from thegerminal-center (GC). However, the role of CREBBP inactivation in lymphomagenesisremains unclear. Using functional epigenomics and mouse genetics, here we definethe program modulated by CREBBP in primary human GC B cells and show thatCREBBP regulates enhancer/super-enhancer networks, with specific roles in GC/post-GC cell fate decisions. Conditional GC-specific deletion of Crebbp in the mouseperturbs the expression of a limited set of genes involved in the regulation of signaltransduction (BCR, TLR and CD40), lineage specification (NF-κB and BCL6) andterminal B cell differentiation (PRDM1, IRF4). Consistently, Crebbp-deficient B cellsexhibit proliferative advantage and show impaired plasma cell differentiation. WhileGC-specific loss of Crebbp was not sufficient to initiate malignant transformation,compound Crebbp-haploinsufficient/BCL2-transgenic mice, mimicking the genetics ofFL and DLBCL, display an increased incidence of clonal lymphoid malignanciesrecapitulating the features of the human diseases. These findings establish CREBBPas a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in GC B cells and provide insights intothe mechanisms and targes by which loss of CREBBP contributes to lymphomagenesis. Overall design: Murine germinal center B cells (B220+CD95+PNA+) were sorted from the spleen of conditional Crebbp knock-out, Crebbp heterozygous and Crebbp wild type mice (crossed with the Cg1-Cre deletor strain) and sacrificed at day 12 after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC)(n=4WT, 5HET and 5KO). Total RNA was extracted from single cell suspensions and processed according to the Ovation RNA Amplification System and Encore® Biotin Module protocols (both from NuGEN). Samples were analyzed on Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays.
Project description:Follicular lymphoma (FL) is incurable with conventional therapies and has a clinical course typified by multiple relapses after therapy. These tumors are genetically characterized by B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) translocation and mutation of genes involved in chromatin modification. By analyzing purified tumor cells, we identified additional novel recurrently mutated genes and confirmed mutations of one or more chromatin modifier genes within 96% of FL tumors and two or more in 76% of tumors. We defined the hierarchy of somatic mutations arising during tumor evolution by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship of somatic mutations across the coding genomes of 59 sequentially acquired biopsies from 22 patients. Among all somatically mutated genes, CREBBP mutations were most significantly enriched within the earliest inferable progenitor. These mutations were associated with a signature of decreased antigen presentation characterized by reduced transcript and protein abundance of MHC class II on tumor B cells, in line with the role of CREBBP in promoting class II transactivator (CIITA)-dependent transcriptional activation of these genes. CREBBP mutant B cells stimulated less proliferation of T cells in vitro compared with wild-type B cells from the same tumor. Transcriptional signatures of tumor-infiltrating T cells were indicative of reduced proliferation, and this corresponded to decreased frequencies of tumor-infiltrating CD4 helper T cells and CD8 memory cytotoxic T cells. These observations therefore implicate CREBBP mutation as an early event in FL evolution that contributes to immune evasion via decreased antigen presentation.
Project description:House mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are surprisingly complex and have features of bird song, but their functions are not well understood. Previous studies have reported mixed evidence on whether there are sex differences in USV emission, though vocalization rate or other features may depend upon whether potential receivers are of the same or opposite sex. We recorded the USVs of wild-derived adult house mice (F1 of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus), and we compared the vocalizations of males and females in response to a stimulus mouse of the same- or opposite-sex. To detect and quantify vocalizations, we used an algorithm that automatically detects USVs (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). We found high individual variation in USV emission rates (4 to 2083 elements/10 min trial) and a skewed distribution, with most mice (60%) emitting few (?50) elements. We found no differences in the rates of calling between the sexes overall, but mice of both sexes emitted vocalizations at a higher rate and higher frequencies during opposite- compared to same-sex interactions. We also observed a trend toward higher amplitudes by males when presented with a male compared to a female stimulus. Our results suggest that mice modulate the rate and frequency of vocalizations depending upon the sex of potential receivers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus over one million years ago. These mice are genetically and phenotypically divergent. Despite the value of utilizing M. musculus and M. spretus for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, relatively little genomic information on M. spretus exists, and most of the available sequence and polymorphic data is for one strain of M. spretus, Spret/Ei. In previous work, we mapped fifteen loci for skin cancer susceptibility using four different M. spretus by M. musculus F1 backcrosses. One locus, skin tumor susceptibility 5 (Skts5) on chromosome 12, shows strong linkage in one cross. RESULTS: To identify potential candidate genes for Skts5, we sequenced 65 named and unnamed genes and coding elements mapping to the peak linkage area in outbred spretus, Spret/EiJ, FVB/NJ, and NIH/Ola. We identified polymorphisms in 62 of 65 genes including 122 amino acid substitutions. To look for polymorphisms consistent with the linkage data, we sequenced exons with amino acid polymorphisms in two additional M. spretus strains and one additional M. musculus strain generating 40.1 kb of sequence data. Eight candidate variants were identified that fit with the linkage data. To determine the degree of variation across M. spretus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses. The relatedness of the M. spretus strains at this locus is consistent with the proximity of region of ascertainment of the ancestral mice. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that, if Skts5 on chromosome 12 is representative of other regions in the genome, then published genomic data for Spret/EiJ are likely to be of high utility for genomic studies in other M. spretus strains.