Project description:This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts.
Project description:Growth assay in the presence of Selenomethionine that uses the barcoded collections of yeast gene modification (deletion or DamP) to identify strains that are hypersensitive to the presence of the aminoacid. Overall design: Two-condition experiment – growth of a pool of strains in the presence or absence of Selenomethionine. Two or three independent biological replicates for each condition
Project description:The Yeast Knockout (YKO) collection has provided a wealth of functional annotations from genome-wide screens. An unintended consequence is that 76% of gene annotations derive from one genotype. The nutritional auxotrophies in the YKO, in particular, have phenotypic consequences. To address this issue, 'prototrophic' versions of the YKO collection have been constructed, either by introducing a plasmid carrying wild-type copies of the auxotrophic markers (Plasmid-Borne, PBprot) or by backcrossing (Backcrossed, BCprot) to a wild-type strain. To systematically assess the impact of the auxotrophies, genome-wide fitness profiles of prototrophic and auxotrophic collections were compared across diverse drug and environmental conditions in 250 experiments. Our quantitative profiles uncovered broad impacts of genotype on phenotype for three deletion collections, and revealed genotypic and strain-construction-specific phenotypes. The PBprot collection exhibited fitness defects associated with plasmid maintenance, while BCprot fitness profiles were compromised due to strain loss from nutrient selection steps during strain construction. The repaired prototrophic versions of the YKO collection did not restore wild-type behaviour nor did they clarify gaps in gene annotation resulting from the auxotrophic background. To remove marker bias and expand the experimental scope of deletion libraries, construction of a bona fide prototrophic collection from a wild-type strain will be required.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beneficial mutations selected during sulfate-limited growth are typically amplifications of the SUL1 gene, which encodes the high-affinity sulfate transporter, resulting in fitness increases of >35% . Cis-regulatory mutations have not been observed at this locus; however, it is not clear whether this absence is due to a low mutation rate such that these mutations do not arise, or they arise but have limited fitness effects relative to those of amplification. To address this question directly, we assayed the fitness effects of nearly all possible point mutations in a 493-base segment of the gene's promoter through mutagenesis and selection. While most mutations were either neutral or detrimental during sulfate-limited growth, eight mutations increased fitness >5% and as much as 9.4%. Combinations of these beneficial mutations increased fitness only up to 11%. Thus, in the case of SUL1, promoter mutations could not induce a fitness increase similar to that of gene amplification. Using these data, we identified functionally important regions of the SUL1 promoter and analyzed three sites that correspond to potential binding sites for the transcription factors Met32 and Cbf1 Mutations that create new Met32- or Cbf1-binding sites also increased fitness. Some mutations in the untranslated region of the SUL1 transcript decreased fitness, likely due to the formation of inhibitory upstream open reading frames. Our methodology-saturation mutagenesis, chemostat selection, and DNA sequencing to track variants-should be a broadly applicable approach.
Project description:How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations.
Project description:Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described.
Project description:This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the first stages of wine fermentation and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method used was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments of whole genome barcoded yeast knock-out collections in continuous culture. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis, were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages, and their results were greatly dependent on the effects of gene deletions on yeast survival during stationary phase. Since biomass production has a great influence on the whole fermentation kinetics, focusing on the proliferative stages of the fermentation process has practical implications. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases our results are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the first stages of the fermentation, when most cell proliferation takes place. Competition experiments of the genome-wide collections of mutants were performed in triplicate using conditions that mimicked Phases I or II of a batch fermentation (equivalent to around 14 and 22 hours after inoculation of a batch fermentation, respectively), as well as on YPD (complete medium) for reference purposes. To this end, different feed formulations were used. One mL of either the homozygote or heterozygote pool stored at -80 ºC was added to 50 mL of YPD broth supplemented with 200 µg/mL G418 and incubated overnight at 28 °C and 150 rpm to serve as inoculum for the competition experiments. Samples were taken before the onset of the continuous culture as t=0 (preculture) references. Variations in pool composition were always estimated against the cognate preculture (most often a single preculture served as inoculum for several competitions). After 10 or 20 generations in continuous culture, samples of cells were used for the genomic DNA extraction. lification of the barcodes (uptags and downtags), hybridization, and scanning were performed according to the protocol described elsewhere [Pierce SE, Davis RW, Nislow C, Giaever G (2007) Genome-wide analysis of barcoded Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene-deletion mutants in pooled cultures. Nat Protocols 2: 2958-2974]. Slight modifications concerning the hybridization of Tag4 microarrays by using reagents and protocols from the GeneChip Hybridization, Wash and Stain Kit (Affymetrix) were made.
Project description:Both linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping provide well-defined approaches to mapping quantitative trait alleles. However, alleles of small effect are particularly difficult to refine to individual genes and causative mutations. Quantitative noncomplementation provides a means of directly testing individual genes for quantitative trait alleles in a fixed genetic background. Here, we implement a genome-wide noncomplementation screen for quantitative trait alleles that affect colony color or size by using the yeast deletion collection. As proof of principle, we find a previously known allele of CYS4 that affects colony color and a novel allele of CTT1 that affects resistance to hydrogen peroxide. To screen nearly 4700 genes in nine diverse yeast strains, we developed a high-throughput robotic plating assay to quantify colony color and size. Although we found hundreds of candidate alleles, reciprocal hemizygosity analysis of a select subset revealed that many of the candidates were false positives, in part the result of background-dependent haploinsufficiency or second-site mutations within the yeast deletion collection. Our results highlight the difficulty of identifying small-effect alleles but support the use of noncomplementation as a rapid means of identifying quantitative trait alleles of large effect.
Project description:Growth assay in the presence of a toxic chemical that uses the barcoded collections of yeast gene deletions (haploid, diploid, DamP) to identify deletion strains that are hypersensitive to the drug. Overall design: Two-condition experiment – growth of a pool of strains in the presence or absence of the drug. Two independent biological replicates for each collection (haploids - homozygous and diploids – heterozigous)