Project description:Hawthorn is of high economic value owing to its medicinal properties and health benefits. Crataegus is a member of the Rosaceae family; the genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and several theories on its origin have been proposed. In this study, 53 accessions from seven Crataegus taxa native to China and accessions of exotic Crataegus species (two from Europe and one from North America) were analyzed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). In total, 933,450 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified after filtering and used to investigate the species' genomic evolution. Phylogenetic trees derived from nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and SLAF-seq data showed the same topology, in which Crataegus maximowiczii and Crataegus sanguineae formed a closely related cluster that was clearly separated from the cluster composed of Crataegus hupehensis, Crataegus pinnatifida, Crataegus pinnatifida var. major, Crataegus bretschneideri and Crataegus scabrifolia. Phylogenetic and structure analysis indicated that the seven Chinese Crataegus taxa had two separate speciation events. Plants that evolved the southwestern route shared the genepool with the European species, whereas plants along the northeastern route shared the genepool with the North American species. TreeMix genetic analysis revealed that C. bretschneideri may have a hybrid origin. This study provides valuable information on the origins of Chinese Crataegus and suggests an evolutionary model for the main Crataegus species that native to China.
Project description:The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe" . This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France) that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.
Project description:Human skin undergoes distinct changes throughout the aging process, based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In a process called photoaging, UVB irradiation leads to upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1, which then causes collagen degradation and premature aging. Mixtures of medicinal plants have traditionally been used as drugs in oriental medicine. Based on the previously reported antioxidant properties of Panax ginseng Meyer and Crataegus pinnatifida, we hypothesized that the mixture of P. ginseng Meyer and C. pinnatifida (GC) would have protective effects against skin aging.Anti-aging activity was examined both in human dermal fibroblasts under UVB irradiation by using Western blot analysis and in healthy human skin by examining noninvasive measurements.In vitro studies showed that GC improved procollagen type I expression and diminished matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion. Based on noninvasive measurements, skin roughness values, including total roughness (R1), maximum roughness (R2), smoothness depth and average roughness (R3), and global photodamage scores were improved by GC application. Moreover, GC ameliorated the high values of smoothness depth (R4), which means that GC reduced loss of skin moisture.These results suggest that GC can prevent aging by inhibiting wrinkle formation and increasing moisture in the human skin.
Project description:Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp and the hard-endocarp hawthorn varieties. De novo assembly yielded 52,673 putative unigenes, 20.4% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 35,979 (68.3%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 1,218 genes, represented 2.31% total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between the soft-endocarp hawthorn and the hard-endocarp hawthorn. Among these differentially expressed genes, a number of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes were down-regulated while almost all the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were strongly up-regulated, concomitant with the formation of soft endocarp. In addition, we have identified some MYB and NAC transcription factors that could potentially control lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding lignin biosynthetic enzymes, MYB and NAC transcription factors were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of Crataegus genus. The high quality ESTs generated in this study will aid future gene cloning from hawthorn. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying soft endocarp formation in hawthorn.
Project description:The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns.